Leucojum aestivum L.
601 (1). L. aestivum L. Syst. Nat. ed. 10 (1759) 975; Hayek Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc. III (1933) 100; Nivaria monadelpha Medic. Acta Palat VI (1790) 422; N. aestivalis Moench Meth. Suppl. (1802) 93 — Лятно блатно кокиче
Fam: Amaryllidaceae Lindl.
Genus: Leucojum L.
Species: Leucojum aestivum L.
English Name: Summer snowflake or Loddon lily
Perennial plant. The bulb is short ovoid, 2 - 3 cm in diameter, with a grayish sheath of old leaves. Stem up to 65 cm high, slightly flattened. Leaves 4 - 6, linear, usually as long as the stem, 5 - 13 mm wide, narrowed to the apex, the tip itself dull. The blossoms at the apex of the stem, 3 - 7, with rather long but unequal petioles. Perianth white, elongated ovate or elliptic, 10 - 15 mm long, apex with a green-yellow spot. The style of the carpophore longer than the stamens, on the tip with prolonged thickening. Fruit box almost spherical, up to 15 mm in diameter. Seeds cylindrical, black.
• Economic importance. Used as an ornamental plant. It is grown mainly on moist and humus-rich soils. The bees visit it and collect pollen and nectar from it. Fresh bulbs are poisonous due to the content of alkaloids: galanthamine, leukoin, etc. Most recently, he received the Nivalin specialty.
¹ Developed by D. Yordanov.
From: „Флора на Н. Р. България”, том II, БАН, София, (1964)
This species is included in Red Data book of Peoples Republic of Bulgaria, vol. I, РАСТЕНИЯ, БАН, КОПС, София, (1984), стр. 76
This species is not included in Red Data book of Republic of Bulgaria (2015):
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Leucojum aestivum, commonly called summer snowflake or Loddon lily, is a plant species widely cultivated as an ornamental. It is native to most of Europe from Spain and Ireland to Ukraine, with the exception of Scandinavia, Russia, Belarus and the Baltic Republics. It is also considered native to Turkey, Iran and the Caucasus. It is naturalized in Denmark, South Australia, New South Wales, Nova Scotia and much of the eastern United States.
Leucojum aestivum is a perennial bulbous plant, generally 35–60 cm tall, but some forms reach 90 cm. Its leaves, which are well developed at the time of flowering, are strap-shaped, 5–20 mm wide, reaching to about the same height as the flowers. The flowering stem (scape) is hollow and has wings with translucent margins. The pendant flowers appear in late spring and are borne in umbels of usually three to five, sometimes as many as seven. The flower stalks (pedicels are of different lengths, 25–70 mm long. The flowers are about 3–4 cm in diameter and have six white tepals, each with a greenish mark just below the tip. The black seeds are 5–7 mm long.
Leucojum aestivum was first described by Carl Linnaeus in 1759. The epithet aestivum means "of the summer". Two subspecies have been recognized (sometimes as varieties rather than subspecies): the nominate L. aestivum subsp. aestivum and L. aestivum subsp. pulchellum. The latter has also been treated as a separate species, L. pulchellum. L. aestivum subsp. pulchellum is differentiated by its generally smaller dimensions. The World Checklist of Selected Plant Families does not recognize any infraspecific taxa.
Distribution and habitat
Leucojum aestivum is native to most of Europe, with the exception of Scandinavia, Russia, Belarus and the Baltic Republics, and is also native to Turkey, the Caucasus and Iran. It is naturalized in other parts of Europe, including Denmark, in South Australia, New South Wales, Nova Scotia and much of the eastern United States. L. aestivum is found in damp places, such as wet meadows, swamps, and ditches.
Leucojum aestivum is cultivated as an ornamental plant for its flowers. It requires a damp position, growing well on clay soils, where it increases rapidly. The cultivar 'Gravetye Giant' is robust, growing to 90 cm (35 in) with up to eight flowers on each scape, and has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. L. aestivum 'Gravetye Giant' is named after Gravetye Manor, an Elizabethan manor house in West Sussex, England, the former home of the gardener William Robinson.
All species of Leucojum are poisonous, as the leaves and bulbs contain the toxic alkaloids lycorine and galantamine. Galantamine is used for the treatment of cognitive decline in mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease and various other memory impairments.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Flowering Time: Blooms: IV - V.
Distribution in Bulgaria: Growing in swampy and periodically flooded meadows, along the outskirts of some swamps and swampy terrains, as well as from rare riparian forests. It is not very rare, but only in the lowlands of the country. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.
Distribution: Growing in swampy and periodically flooded meadows, along the outskirts of some swamps and swampy terrains, as well as from rare riparian forests. It is not very rare, but only in the lowlands of the country.
Conservation status and threats: protected species in Bulgaria by the Biodiversity Law. - Biological Diversity Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/zbran_22.08.15.pdf
Medical plant: it is not medical plant - Medicinal Plants Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/ZLR_en.pdf
References: „Флора на Н. Р. България”, том II, БАН, София, (1964), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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