Linaria vulgaris Mill.

2793 (6). L. vulgaris Mill., Gard. Diet. ed. 8 (1768) № 1; Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc. II (1929) 143; Chater, Valdes et Webb, Fl. Eur. I II  (1972) 232; Anti­rrhinum linaria L., Sp. Pl. ed. 1 (1753) 616; L. angustissima auct. Fl. bulg., non Boiss.; L. italica auct., non Trev. — Обикиовеиа луличка

Fam:   Scrophulariaceae Juss.
Genus:   Linaria Mill.
Species: Common toadflax, Yellow toadflax, or Butter-and-eggs
English Name:


Perennial plant. The root is spindle-shaped, branched, often twisted and develops horizontal underground shoots, forming sterile stems. Stem 30 - 50 (70) cm high, erect, single or branched, glabrous. Leaves sat down, linear-lance or linear, thick  located, 20 - 50 (70) mm long and 2.5 - 4 (6) mm wide, with a curved edge down, narrowed at the base, pointed at the top, with 1 , rarely with 3 veins. Inflorescence compact cluster, rarely panicle, elongated after flowering. Inflorescence axis, flower petioles, sometimes calyx glandular fibrous, rarely almost bare. Bracts lance, 2 - 10 (12) mm long  and 1 - 3 mm wide, 2 - 3 times longer, rarely equal to the calyx, often curved backwards, equal to the flower petioles or shorter than them. Calyx shares lance or oblong-ovate, 2 - 3 mm long, more or less pointed at the apex, without or with an indistinct cartilaginous edge. Corolla without spur (10) 15 - 18 mm long, yellow; the upper lip with ovate shares and between them is a 2.5 - 3 mm deep cut; the lower one at the base on top with a spot of orange or whitish hairs and with rounded, up to 5 mm wide lateral shares and a shorter triangular ovoid middle share; spur narrow conical, 10 - 15 mm long, bright yellow towards the base, directed downwards, more or less curved. The box is 9 - 11 mm long and 6 - 7 mm wide, oblong-elliptical, 2 - 3 times longer than the calyx. Seeds 2 - 3 mm in diameter, disc-shaped, with a wide membranous edge, warty in the center.

Economic significance. The above-ground parts contain flavonoid glycosides - linarin, pectolinarin, lanacrin, etc., and vitamin C (from 343 to 427 mg%). In folk medicine it is used as a diuretic, cleansing, etc. Ornamental plant.

From:   „Флора на Република България”, том X, Академично издателство „Проф. Марин Дринов”, Б А Н, София, (1995)

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Linaria vulgaris (common toadflax,[1][2] yellow toadflax, or butter-and-eggs[3]) is a species of toadflax (Linaria), native from Europe to Siberia and Central Asia.[4] It has also been introduced and is now common in North America.[3]


It is a perennial plant with short spreading roots, erect to decumbent stems 15–90 cm (6–35 in) high, with fine, threadlike, glaucous blue-green leaves 2–6 cm (3⁄4–2 1⁄4 in) long and 1–5 mm (0.04–0.20 in) broad. The flowers are similar to those of the snapdragon, 25–33 mm (0.98–1.30 in) long, pale yellow except for the lower tip which is orange, borne in dense terminal racemes from mid summer to mid autumn. The flowers are mostly visited by bumblebees.[5] The fruit is a globose capsule 5–11 mm (0.20–0.43 in) long and 5–7 mm (0.20–0.28 in) broad, containing numerous small seeds.[2]
The plant is widespread on ruderal spots, along roads, in dunes, and on disturbed and cultivated land.[2]
Because the flower is largely closed by its underlip, pollination requires strong insects such as bees and bumblebees (Bombus species).[2]
The plant is food plant for a large number of insects such as the sweet gale moth (Acronicta euphorbiae), mouse moth (Amphipyra tragopoginis), silver Y (Autographa gamma), Calophasia lunula, gorgone checkerspot (Charidryas gorgone carlota), toadflax pug (Eupithecia linariata), satyr pug (Eupithecia satyrata), Falseuncaria ruficiliana, bog fritillary (Boloria eunomia), Pyrrhia umbra, brown rustic (Rusina ferruginea), and Stenoptilia bipunctidactyla.
It may be mildly toxic to livestock.[6]

Fossil record

Seeds of the common toadflax, were identified from the Hoxnian interglacial strata at Clacton. Records have also come from the Weichselian glaciation strata in Essex, Huntingdonshire, Surrey and North Wales. This evidence makes the native status of the plant in Britain quite evident despite the very strong association that it has today with waste places and man-made habitats.[7]

Other names

Linaria acutiloba Fisch. ex Rchb. is a synonym.[12] Because this plant grows as a weed, it has acquired a large number of local colloquial names, including brideweed, bridewort, butter and eggs (but see Lotus corniculatus), butter haycocks, bread and butter, bunny haycocks, bunny mouths, calf's snout, Continental weed, dead men's bones, devil's flax, devil's flower, doggies, dragon bushes, eggs and bacon (but see Lotus corniculatus), eggs and butter, false flax, flaxweed, fluellen (but see Kickxia), gallweed, gallwort, impudent lawyer, Jacob's ladder (but see Polemonium), lion's mouth, monkey flower (but see Mimulus), North American ramsted, rabbit flower, rancid, ransted, snapdragon (but see Antirrhinum), wild flax, wild snapdragon, wild tobacco (but see Nicotiana), yellow rod, yellow toadflax.[8]

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Flowering Time: Blooms: V - X, fruitful: VII - X (XI).

References: „Флора на Република България”, том X, Академично издателство „Проф. Марин Дринов”, Б А Н, София, (1995), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Distribution in Bulgaria: Growing in grassy places, along roads, embankments, etc. in the lowlands and mountains. Widespread, from sea level to 1800 m altitude. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.

Distribution: Europe (excluding the southernmost and northernmost regions), Western Siberia, Southwest Asia (Asia Minor). Moved to North America.

Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by the Biodiversity Law. - Biological Diversity Act -

Medical plant: yes, it is - Medicinal Plants Act -

1. 2. 3. 4.


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