Melilotus officinalis (L. ) Pall.

lilotus officinalis (L.) Pall,, Reise HI (1776) 537; Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc. I (1926) 845; Hansen, Fl. Eur. 11(1968) 149; Trifolium melilotus  -  officinalis L., Sp. PI. ed. 1 (1753) 765  -  Лечебна комунига

Fam:   Leguminose Juss. (Fabaceae)
Genus:   Melilotus Mill.
Species: Melilotus officinalis (L. ) Pall.
English Name: Yellow sweet clover, Yellow melilot, Ribbed melilot or Common melilot

Annual plants. Stems erect or ascending, branched from the base, from 40.0 - 150.0 cm tall, ribbed, naked. Stipules styliform a little short as three to four times shorter than the petiole, entire. Leaves shorter than inflorescence stalks. Leaves (10.0) 15.0 - 20.0 (25.0) mm long and (3.0) 4.0 - 12.0 (14.0) mm wide, the lower leaves ovate back, on top - eliptically wedge-shaped or linear elliptic, feathery veined, almost all of the base irregularly triangular or sharp triangular, serrated at the top by about 1.0 mm long little awn, naked; the stem of middle little awn 2 - 4 times shorter than the petiole, the side stem leaves 4 - 5 times shorter than of the stem of the middle leaf. Raceme (5.0) 9.0 - 12.0 (18.0) cm long, colorful, loose and thin, axis naked. Bracts equal to blossom stem, membranous. The blossom stem off-standing wooly, half shorter than the calyx, slightly shorter than the tube. Calyx 1/2 - 1/3 of the length of the corolla, to the upper end of the tube uneven off-standing wooly; the tube bell-shaped; teeth shorter or slightly longer than the tube, a lance wedge. Corolla 4.0 - 6.0 мм long yellow. Flag  4.5 - 5.5 мм long and 3.0 - 3.5 mm wide, ovate back on top slightly concave, with short leaf blade equal to the wings and longer than the keel. Wings linear and 2 times the length of the nail leaf blade, the tongue 1/2 - 1/3 of the length of the nail, a flag equal to or longer than boat. Jke boat to the top blunt, leaf blade irregular triangular claw slightly shorter. Beans usually monocotyledon, 3.9 - 4.0 mm long and 2.0 mm wide, mesh wrinkled, with a short apex, brown at maturity. Seed one (2.0) 2.2 - 2.5 mm oval, maroon or reddish, with up to 2/3 of the tour scar.

var. officinalis. Little leaves of the upper leaves from 4.0 - 14.0 mm wide, elliptical wedge-shaped, back to ovate, naked. Widespread.
var. arenaria (Grec.) Hayek, 1. c.; M. arenaria Grec., Suppl. Consp. Fl. Rom. II (1909) 198. The little leaves of the upper leaves linear elliptical, 3.0 - 4 mm wide, at the bottom wooly. Black Sea Coast (North).

Flowering Time: Blooms VI-VIII, fruitful VII-IX.


„Флора на НР България”, том VI, БАН, София, 1976  

Distribution in Bulgaria:

These plants are growing in moist grassy areas around crops as a weed and ruderal road-sides. In all appropriate floristic regions in Bulgaria up to 800 m altitude.


Europe (excluding the extreme north), Mediterranean, Caucasus, Southwest and Central Asia (Asia Minor, Iran), Siberia.

Conservation status and threats:  not protected species in Bulgaria by theBiodiversity Law. Законодателство на Република България: Закон за биологичното разнообразие

Medical plant: it is in Bulgaria -

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Melilotus officinalis 1. Melilotus officinalis 2. Melilotus officinalis 3. Melilotus officinalis 4.

Melilotus officinalis 5. Melilotus officinalis 6. Melilotus officinalis 7.

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