Ophrys scolopax Cav.

Fam:   Orchidaceae Lindl.
Genus:   Ophrys L.
Species: Ophrys scolopax Cav.
English Name: Woodcock bee-orchid or Woodcock orchid


Ophrys scolopax Cav.


1. subsp. apiformis (Desf.) Maire & Weiller - Bienenähnliche Unterart

Beschreibung: Pflanze 13 - 40 cm hoch. Laubblatter 4 - 5, am Grunde gedrangt, schmal-lanzettlich, bis 2,5 cm breit, am Grunde verschmalert, sowie 1 - 2 stengelumfassende Hochblätter. Blűtenstand verlängert, bis 18 cm lang, locker, 5- bis 13blütig. Tragblätter schmal-lanzettlich, oft doppelt so lang wie die unteren Blüten. Sepalen länglich-eiförmig, stumpf, 7 - 10 mm lang, weiß oder blaßrosa, selten grün, mit grünen Mittelnerven, die seitlichen abstehend bis stark zurückgeschlagen, das mittlere Sepalblatt leicht vorwärts gekrümmt, aufgerichtet, oder stark zurückge­schlagen. Petalen schmal-lanzettlich, 2,5 - 4,5 mm lang, an den Rändern leicht zurückgerollt, meist stark behaart, gleich oder dunkler gefärbt als die Sepalen. Lippe ziemlich klein, länglich bis elliptisch, 6,5 - 9 mm lang, 4,5 - 7,5 mm breit, ziemlich gewölbt, im oberen Teil tief dreilappig, tief purpurn. Seitenlappen nur mit einer schmalen Ansatzstelle mit der Lippe verbunden, nach oben in steil aufgerichtete, bis 4 mm lange zugespitzte Höcker verlängert, innen kahl, gelblichgrün, außen dicht zottig behaart. Mittellappen im oberen Teil leicht eingeschnürt. Anhängsel ungewöhnlich breit, bisweilen dreizipflig, meist aufwärts gekrümmt, gelblichgrün. Zeichnung meist ausgedehnt, ziemlich variabel.
Blutezeit: Von Anfang April bis Anfang Juni, je nach Höhenlage.
Höhenverbreitung: Von der Küste bis etwa 2000 m Hohe.
Standort: Auf Ödland, an rasigen Stellen, im Gebüsch.
Bastarde: Selten mit O. lutea und O. tenthredinifera.
Bildnachweis: 15. 4. 1972, Zaghouan (Nordwest-Tunesien), H. Baumann.
"Die wildwachsende Orchideen Europas", H. Baumann, S. Künkele, Kosmos, Stuttgart, (1982),

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First subsp. apiformis (Desf.) Maire & Weiller - bees Similar subspecies
Description: Plant 13 - 40 cm high. True leaves 4 - 5, clustered at the base, narrow-lanceolate, to 2.5 cm wide, narrowed at the base, and 1 - 2 covering the stem leaves up. Inflorescence extended until 18 cm long, loose, consisting of 5- to 13 blossoms. Bracts narrowly lanceolate, often twice as long as the lower petals. Sepals oblong-ovate, obtuse, 7 - 10 mm long, white or blafirosa, rarely green, with green central nerve, the lateral projecting up sharply repulsed, the middle sepal slightly curved forward, erect, or strong repulsed. Petals narrowly lanceolate, 2,5 -  4,5 mm long, slightly rolled back at the edges, usually most often hairy, equal to or darker than the sepals. Lip quite small, oblong to elliptic, 6.5 - 9 mm long, 4.5 - 7.5 mm wide, rather arched, deeply three-lobed in the upper part, deep purple. Lateral lobes only with a narrow attachment point associated with the lip, upwards in steeply erected, to 4 mm long extended pointed cusps, inside glabrous, yellowish green, outside densely villous. Middle lobe in the upper part slightly constricted. Appendages unusually broad, sometimes with tips, usually curved upward, yellowish green. Drawing mostly extended, quite variable.
Flowering time: from early April to early June, depending on the altitude.
Height Spread: From the coast to around 2000 m altitude.
Habitat: In the wasteland, on grassy places, in the bushes.
Bastards: Rare with O. lutea and O. tenthredinifera.
Origin pictures: 15. 4. 1972, Zaghouan (Tunisia Northwest), H. Baumann.
"Die wildwachsende Orchideen Europas", H. Baumann, S. Künkele, Kosmos, Stuttgart, (1982),

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Ophrys scolopax, known as the Woodcock Bee-orchid or Woodcock Orchid, is a species of terrestrial orchid found around the Mediterranean and the Middle East, from Morocco and Portugal to Hungary and Iran.[1][2]


Ophrys scolopax grows from underground tubers. Leaves typically start to appear above ground in late autumn and are often beginning to yellow by the time the flowers appear,[3] which in the case of O. scolopax is between March and June in their native habitats. The flower spike is very variable in height, usually 10–50 cm (4–20 in) tall, but occasionally up to 90 cm (3 ft). The number of flowers is equally variable, with as few as two or as many as 15 or even more. Each flower has the standard structure for the genus. There are three outer sepals which may be lighter or darker shades of green or violet, the lightest appearing white. Each is 7–16 mm (0.3–0.6 in) long by 3–10 mm (0.1–0.4 in) wide. The upper (dorsal) sepal varies from flat to boat-shaped and is bent backwards at the base and then curves forwards. Inside the sepals are three petals, two lateral petals and the lip. The lateral petals may be pink to violet in colour, or green, and are around 1.5–8 mm (0.1–0.3 in) long by 0.8–4 mm (0.0–0.2 in) wide.[4]
The lip (labellum) has a complex three-dimensional shape and is strongly patterned. It is divided at the base into three lobes, each of which is rolled up so that from the front there appear to be three tubes. The relative length of the three lobes varies; the larger central lobe is 6–16 mm (0.2–0.6 in) long and has a more or less upturned appendage. The outer sides of the side lobes are hairy; the margins of the central lobe are velvety. The rest of the surface of the lobes is smooth. The background colour of the lip is some shade of brown. The speculum is H- or X-shaped or even more complicated, usually a dull blue to violet in colour with a pale yellow border.[4]


A rather long list of varieties, forms, and subspecies have been proposed for this species. As of May 2014, the following such names are recognized:[1]


·  "Ophrys scolopax", World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew), retrieved 2014-12-07
·  ·  "Ophrys scolopax Cav. – Ofride cornuta", Altervista Flora Italiana, retrieved 2014-12-07
·  ·  Pedersen & Faurholdt 2007, pp. 22–24
·  Pedersen & Faurholdt 2007, p. 126


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Flowering Time: from early April to early June, depending on the altitude.

References: "Die wildwachsende Orchideen Europas", H. Baumann, S. Künkele, Kosmos, Stuttgart, (1982), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Distribution in Bulgaria: no data in "Die wildwachsende Orchideen Europas", H. Baumann, S. Künkele, Kosmos, Stuttgart, (1982)

(Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.

Distribution: From Spain and Nord Africa, Mediterrannean, trough Balkan Peninsula, until Turkey to Iran

Conservation status and threats: Protected are all species of the Family Orchidaceae Lindl., but this species is not protected in Bulgaria ? by the Biodiversity Law. Законодателство на Република България: Закон за биологичното разнообразие

Medical plant: it is not -


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