Orchis mascula (L.) L.

640 (10). O. mascula L. FL Suec. ed. 2 (1755) 310; Hayek Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc. (Ill) 390 —Мъжки салеп

Fam:   Orchidaceae Lindl.
Genus:  Orchis L.
Species: Orchis mascula (L.) L.
English Name: Еarly-purple orchid


Orchis mascula (L.) L.

Mannliches Knabenkraut

Beschreibung: Pflanze mittelgroß bis groß, 20 - 55 cm hoch. Laubblätter 4 - 8, am Grunde rosettig gehäuft. Die 3 - 5 Grundblätter sind langlich-eiförmig, 7 - 22 cm lang und 1,5 - 3,5 cm breit, braun gestrichelt oder gefleckt oder ganz ungefleckt. Nach oben folgen 2 - 3 scheidenartige Stengelblätter. Der Stengel ist steif aufrecht, im unteren Teil oft braunrot gestrichelt. Der Blütenstand ist zylindrisch, dicht- und reichblütig, bis zu 18 cm lang. Die Tragblätter sind braunrot und zugespitzt, etwa so lang wie der Fruchtknoten. Die Blüten sind mittelgroß. Die Blütenfarbe variiert zwischen hellrosa bis purpurviolett, die dunkler gefärbten Pflanzen überwiegen jedoch. Die seitlichen Sepalen sind vollständig zurückgeschlagen, 7 - 9 mm lang und 3 - 4 mm breit, am Ende meist etwas zugespitzt. Das mittlere Sepal und die Petalen wolben sich über das Säulchen. Die Lippe ist dreilappig, 7 - 8 mm breit und 8 - 9 mm lang, der Mittellappen vorgezogen. Die Seitenlappen sind zurückgeschlagen. Der Sporn ist aufwärts gebogen, am Ende abgestumpft, 11 - 12 mm lang, etwas länger als der Fruchtknoten.
Blütezeit: Anfang Mai bis Ende Juni.
Höhenverbreitung: Von der Ebene bis in höhere Gebirgslagen aufsteigend, vor allem im Süden (bis etwa 3000 m).
Standort: Im Süden Waldpflanze, in Mitteleuropa auch auf ungedüngten Wiesen.
Bastarde: Mit O. langei, morio, olbiensis, pallens, pauciflora, provincialis, purpurea, spitzelii, tridentata.
Bildnachweis: 18.5.1977, Wiesensteig (Baden-Württemberg), H. Baumann.
"Die wildwachsende Orchideen Europas", H. Baumann, S. Künkele, Kosmos, Stuttgart, (1982),

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Orchis mascula (L.) L.

Description: Plant medium large to large, 20 - 55 cm high. Leaves 4 - 8, basically clustered in rosette. The 3 - 5 basic leaves are oblong-ovate, 7 - 22 cm long and 1.5 - 3.5 cm wide, brown spotted or dashed or completely without spots. Follow up 2 - 3 divorce-like stalk’s leaves. The stem is stiff upright, dashed often brownish in the lower part. The inflorescence is cylindrical, thick- and with many blossoms, up to 18 cm long. The bract leaves are brownish red and pointed, about as long as the ovary. The blossoms are medium size. The color of the blossoms varies from light pink to purple-violet, darker colored plants predominate, however. The lateral sepals are completely retrograde, 7 - 9 mm long and 3 - 4 mm wide, usually somewhat pointed at the end. The median sepal and petals cover itself via the peduncle. The lip is three-lobed, 7 - 8 mm wide and 8 - 9 mm long, the middle lobe protruding forward. The side flaps are repulsed. The spur is onward bent, blunt at the end, 11 - 12 mm long, slightly longer than the ovary.
Flowering time: beginning of May until the end of June.
Height Spread: From the plains up to higher mountain regions ascending, especially in the south (to about 3000 m).
Habitat: In the southern Europe forest plant, in Central Europe on unfertilised meadows.
Bastards: With O. langei, morio, olbiensis, pallens, pauciflora, provincialis, purpurea, spitzelii, tridentata.                           
Origin pictures: 05/18/1977, Wiesensteig (Baden-Württemberg), H. Baumann.
"Die wildwachsende Orchideen Europas", H. Baumann, S. Künkele, Kosmos, Stuttgart, (1982),

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640 (10). O. mascula L. FL Suec. ed. 2 (1755) 310; Hayek Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc. (Ill) 390 —Мъжки салеп

Perennials. Cumulus oval tubers. Stem to 50 cm high, at the top generally purple or purple dots. Leaves lanky lancet, often with small purple spots, the top surround the stem. Inflorescence rather dense, oval or cylindrical. Bracts lanceolate, purple, with 1 - 3 veins and long approximately as ovary. Blossoms light magenta. Perianth leaflets oval, blunt. The two outer stretched or rolled back, the other three gathered in the helmet. Lip tripartite, wide wedge or back oval, purple at its base whitish with dark purple dots. Her side shares rounded serrated, middle no-longer than them, the front cut and jagged, blurred duple. Spur cylindrical or slightly swatter-like, long as ovary.


In Bulgaria and ssp. signifera Soo Fedde Rep. (1927) 28; O Speciosa Host Fl. Austr. II (1831) 527 Perianth leaflets on top with thinly small awn. The middle share of the lip up to two times longer than the side.

Note:  Tubers contained in the composition of dry matter slime 48%, starch 25%, protein substances 5%, glucose 1%, less resin, calcium oxalate, mineral salts.
"Флора на НР България", том II, БАН, София, (1964),

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Orchis mascula, the early-purple orchid,[1] is a species of flowering plant in the orchid family, Orchidaceae.


Orchis mascula is a perennial herbaceous plant with stems up to 50–60 centimetres (20–24 in) of height, green at the base and purple on the apex. The root system consists of two tubers, rounded or ellipsoid. The leaves, grouped at the base of the stem, are oblong-lanceolate, pale green, sometimes with brownish-purple speckles. The inflorescence is 7.5–12.5 centimetres (3–5 in) long and it is composed of 6 to 20 flowers gathered in dense cylindrical spikes. The flower size is about 2.5 centimetres (0.98 in) and the color varies from pink to violet. The lateral sepals are ovate-lanceolate and erect, the median one, together with the petals, is smaller and cover the gynostegium. The labellum is three-lobed and convex, with crenulated margins and the basal part clearer and dotted with purple-brown spots. The spur is cylindrical or clavate, horizontal or ascending. The gynostegium is short, with reddish-green anthers. It blooms from April to June.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Flowering Time: Blooms: IV - VI.

References: "Die wildwachsende Orchideen Europas", H. Baumann, S. Künkele, Kosmos, Stuttgart, (1982), "Флора на НР България", том II, БАН, София, (1964), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia,

Distribution in Bulgaria: On sunny shrubby slopes near forests, in forest clearings and others. Fairly widespread in the foothills and mountains in some places reaches around 2000 meters altitude. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.

Distribution: Central and Southern Europe, Asia Minor, the Caucasus, Iran, northwestern Africa.

Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by the Biodiversity Law. Законодателство на Република България: Закон за биологичното разнообразие

Medical plant: yes, it is -


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