Orchis simia Lam.

Fam: Orchidaceae   Lindl.
Genus:  Orchis L.
Species: Orchis simia Lam.
English Name: Monkey orchid


Orchis simia Lam.


Beschreibung: Pflanze mittelgroß, 20 - 45 cm hoch. Laubblätter 3 - 6, am Grunde rosettig gehäuft. Die 2 - 4 Grundblätter sind glänzend hellgrün und ungefleckt, länglich-eiförmig, 6 - 15 cm lang und 2,0 - 4,5 cm breit. Nach oben folgen 1 - 2 scheidige Stengelblätter. Der Blütenstand ist kurz zylindrisch, 3 - 7 cm lang und reichblütig. Die Tragblätter sind sehr kurz und lang zugespitzt, etwa halb so lang wie der Fruchtknoten. Die Blüten sind mittelgroß und blühen von oben nach unten auf. Die Perigonblätter bilden einen Helm mit frei abstehenden Spitzen. Er ist auf der Außenseite weiß bis rosa gefärbt, die Nerven sind dunkler. Die Sepalen sind etwa 10 mm lang, die Petalen deutlich kleiner. Die Lippe ist tief dreigeteilt, der Mittellappen nochmals tief zweigeteilt. Die Seitenlappen und die beiden Teillappen des Mittellappens sind lang und schmal, an den freien Enden aufwärts gebogen und dunkelrot gefärbt. Der mittlere Teil der Lippe ist weiß bis rosa gefärbt und mit dunkelroten Papillen besetzt. Der Mittellappen besitzt am Grunde ein rotes Zähnchen. Der Sporn ist zylindrisch und hell gefärbt, abwärts gerichtet und halb so lang wie der Fruchtknoten. Seine Länge betragt 5 mm.
Blütezeit: Anfang März bis Ende Mai.
Höhenverbreitung: Von der Küste bis etwa 1500 m.
Standort: Kalkliebende Art der Trockenrasen, lichter Wälder oder Gebüsche.
Naturschutz: Nach der Bundesartenschutz-Verordnung vom Aussterben bedroht.
Bastarde: Nachgewiesen mit O. italica, militaris, purpurea, ustulata und Aceras.
Bildnachweis: 1.5.1981, Istrien bei Koper (Nordjugoslawien), H. Baumann.
"Die wildwachsende Orchideen Europas", H. Baumann, S. Künkele, Kosmos, Stuttgart, (1982),

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Orchis simia Lam.

Description: Plant of medium size, 20 - 45 cm high. Leaves 3 - 6, at the base heaped rosettes. The 2 - 4 basal leaves are shiny green and unspotted, oblong-ovate, 6 - 15 cm long and 2.0 - 4.5 cm wide. Top Follow 1 - 2 failed ended stem leaves. The inflorescence is short cylindrical, 3 - 7 cm long and floriferous. The bracts are very pointedly short and long, about half as long as the ovary. The flowers are medium in size and bloom from top to bottom on. The perianths forming a helmet with freely projecting tips. He is on the outside white to pink colored, the nerves are darker. The sepals are about 10 mm long, the petals significantly smaller. The lip is deeply divided into three parts, the middle lobe bisected again deeply. The side share and the two shares of the middle lobe are long and narrow, bent at the free ends upward and dark red. The middle part of the lip is white to pink colored and filled with dark red papillae. The middle share has at the bottom a red little tooth. The spur is cylindrical and brightly colored, downward and half as long as the ovary. Its length is 5 mm.
Flowering time: early March to late May.
Height Spread: From the coast to about 1500 m.
Habitat: lime-loving kind of dry grass, lights forests or thickets.
Conservation: After the federal protection of species regulation endangered.
Bastards: Proved by O. italica, militaris, purpurea, ustulata and Aceras.
Origin pictures:  1.5.1981, Istria with Koper (northern Yugoslavia), H. Baumann.
"Die wildwachsende Orchideen Europas", H. Baumann, S. Künkele, Kosmos, Stuttgart, (1982),

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Orchis simia, commonly known as the monkey orchid, is a greyish pink to reddish species of the Orchis genus. It gets its common name from its lobed lip which mimics the general shape of a monkey's body.[1]
The range of the species is central and southern Europe, including southern England, the Mediterranean, Russia, Asia Minor, Caucasus, northern Iraq, Iran to Turkmenistan and northern Africa[2][3] where it occurs in grassland, garrigue, scrub and open woodland, chiefly on limestone soils. It is absent from the Balearic Islands, Corsica and Sardinia.[4] On Cyprus the species can be categorized as threatened.[2]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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637 (7). O. simia Lam. Fl. Frang. Ill (1778) 507; O. tephrosanthos Vill. Pl. Dauph. II (1787) 32; Hayek Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc. III (1933) 389—Маймунски салеп

Perennials. Oval tubers. Stem to 40 cm high. The leaves usually 4 lanky, oval, flat, shiny surface and a vaginal sheet enveloping the stem. Inflorescence dense, oval. Bracts small, roundish. Perianth leaflets lanky, pointed pale gray red with purple veins, all gathered in the helmet. Lip longer than the helmet, purple, at its base white with red dots, top, in the middle of warts, tripartite. Side shares narrow linear. The middle share cut in two narrow linear little shares, identical with the side shares,with a tooth or small awn between them. All shares curved. Spur bat like cylindrical, about two times shorter than the ovary.


var. laxiflora Boiss. Fl. Or. V (1884) 63. Inflorescence rarely to 8 cm long. . Together with typical plants (in Kolarovgrad etc.).

Like the two following types of plant by drying issued a strong smell of coumarin.

"Флора на НР България", том II, БАН, София, (1964),

Flowering Time: Blooms: IV - VI.

References: "Die wildwachsende Orchideen Europas", H. Baumann, S. Künkele, Kosmos, Stuttgart, (1982), Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaр, "Флора на НР България", том II, БАН, София, (1964),

Distribution in Bulgaria: In sunny grassy slopes in bright bushes and groves in the forest glades, especially common on limestone or loess, from the lowlands to about 1800 m altitude in different parts of the country. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.

Distribution: Atlantic and South Europe, Southwest Asia to Turkestan, North Africa.

Conservation status and threats:  not protected species in Bulgaria by theBiodiversity Law. Законодателство на Република България: Закон за биологичното разнообразие

Medical plant: yes, it is -



1. Orchis simia Lam.

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