Orchis ustulata L.

Fam: Orchidaceae  Lindl.
Genus:   Orchis L.
Species: Orchis ustulata L.
English Name: Burnt Tip Orchid


Orchis ustulata L.

Angebranntes Knabenkraut

Beschreibung: Pflanze niedrig, sie gehört zu den kleinsten der Gattung, 10 - 30 cm hoch. Laubblätter 3 - 6, am Grunde rosettig gehäuft, blaugrün gefärbt, 3 - 8 cm lang und 0,5 - 2,0 cm breit. Nach oben folgen 1 - 3 scheidige Stengelblätter. Der Blütenstand ist kurz, bis zu 10 cm lang und trägt zahlreiche winzige Blüten. Die Tragblätter sind hautig, etwa so lang wie der Fruchtknoten. Die Blüten sind sehr klein. Die Perigonblätter bilden einen kleinen kugeligen Helm, der auf der Außenseite dunkelpurpurn gefärbt ist. Im Knospenzustand ist er fast schwarz. Die Sepalen sind eiförmig und 3 - 4 mm lang, die Petalen noch kürzer. Die Lippe ist stark dreigelappt und flach ausgebreitet, die Seitenlappen sind kleiner als der meist nochmals zweigeteilte Mittellappen. Im ausgebreiteten Zustand ist die Lippe 5 mm lang und 3 mm breit, fast rein weiß gefärbt und mit kleineren purpurnen Flecken besetzt. Der Sporn ist zylindrisch und stumpf, abwärts gerichtet und halb so lang wie der Fruchtknoten.
Blutezeit: Anfang Mai bis Ende Juli.
Höhenverbreitung: Von der Küste bis 2100 m.
Standort: Halbtrockenrasen, ungedüungte kurzrasige Bergwiesen und in lichten Eichenwäldern.
Naturschutz: Die Pflanze geht durch Düngung ihrer Standorte stark zurück.
Bastarde: Nachgewiesen mit O. militaris, morio, simia und tridentata.
Bildnachweis: 8.6.1979, Reutlingen (Baden-Württemberg), V. Hoffmann.
"Die wildwachsende Orchideen Europas", H. Baumann, S. Künkele, Kosmos, Stuttgart, (1982),

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Orchis ustulata L.

Description: Plant low, it is perhaps the smallest of the species in this genus, 10 - 30 cm high. Leaves: 3 - 6, heaped at the base rosette, blue colored green, 3 - 8 cm long and 0.5 - 2.0 cm wide. Top Follow 1 - 3 failed ended stem leaves. The inflorescence is short, up to 10 cm long and carries numerous tiny flowers. The bracts are leathery, about as long as the ovary. The flowers are very small. The perianths form a small spherical helmet that has a dark purple on the outside. In buds state it is almost black. The sepals are ovate 3 -  4 mm long, the petals shorter. The lip is three-lobed and strongly spread out, flat, the side shares are less than the most again bipartite middle share. In spread-out state, the lip is 5 mm long and 3 mm wide, colored almost pure white and studded with small purple blotches. The spur is cylindrical and blunt, directed downward and half as long as the ovary.
Flowering time:  early May to end of July.
Height Spread: From the coast to 2100 m.
Habitat: semi-dry grasslands, unfertilised with low vegetation mountain meadows and in sparse oak forests.
Conservation: The plant goes through fertilization of their locations back strong.
Bastards: Proved by O. militaris, morio, simia and tridentata.
Origin pictures: 06.08.1979, Reutlingen (Baden-Württemberg), V. Hoffmann.
"Die wildwachsende Orchideen Europas", H. Baumann, S. Künkele, Kosmos, Stuttgart, (1982),

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Neotinea ustulata (known as burnt orchid[3] or burnt-tip orchid) is a European terrestrial orchid native to mountains in central and southern Europe, growing at up to 2,400 m (7,900 ft) elevation. The plant is considered Endangered in Great Britain and Least Concern internationally based on IUCN Red List criteria.[4] The burnt-tip orchid was voted the county flower of Wiltshire in 2002 following a poll by the wild flora conservation charity Plantlife.[5]


N. ustulata grows from two spherical tubers with thick roots. It is believed that the plant can grow underground for 10-15 years before the first stem appears. Plants have 3 to 9 cm (1.2 to 3.5 in) leaves with prominent veins, along with a couple of leaves typically around the flower stem, which can reach 28 cm (11 in), though typically less than 13 cm (5.1 in) tall.[4]
Flowers are born in a dense cylindrical pattern, with individual plants capable of producing up to 70 flowers. The sepals and petals form a 3 mm (0.12 in) hood that is reddish-brown, over a white crimson-spotted lower lip that is 4 mm (0.16 in). Flowers have a strong fragrance that is described as similar to honey. N. ustulata flowers from May through June, with the subspecies, Neotinea ustulata subsp. aestivalis blooming in July in England. The common name comes from the tips of the flower buds having a burnt appearance.[4]

Distribution and habitat

N. ustulata is distributed throughout central and south Europe, with its main populations in Spain and Greece in the south, reaching England and southern Sweden in the north, and reaching as far east as the Caucasus and Ural mountains. It grows as high as 2,400 m (7,900 ft) elevation in the Carpathian mountains and the Alps. It typically grows on chalky subsoil (occasionally acidic soils) in grassland; fens and open pine forest; mountain meadows, valleys, and ledges; wet grasslands.[4] The plant's largest population in northwest Europe is on Parsonage Down, in Wiltshire, England.[6][7]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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634 (4). O. ustuiata L. Sp. PL ed, 1 (1753). 941; O. amoena Crantz Stirp. Austr. (1769) 490; Hayek Prodr. Fl. Penins. Batc. Ill (3933) 387 — Опърлен салеп, изгорка

Perennials. Cumulus tubers. Stem up to 30 cm high. Leaves lanky lancet, the top 2 - 3 cover the stem. Inflorescence dense, oval, cylindrical subsequently with small flowers (most small-orchid in Bulgarian nature). Bracts oval lancet, purple, with a streak, shorter than ovary. Perianth leaflets outside dull purple, collected in collected in almost dull reddish black helmet. External oval, internal narrow lanky. Lip white or pale pink with purple dots, deep tripartite. Side shares lanky linear, cut, the middle longer, front extended and deeply incised, notch often a tooth. Shares its front blunt and jagged. Spur conical, shorter than the lip and almost 4 times shorter than the ovary.

"Флора на НР България", том II, БАН, София, (1964),

Flowering Time: Blooms: V - VI.

References: "Die wildwachsende Orchideen Europas", H. Baumann, S. Künkele, Kosmos, Stuttgart, (1982), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, "Флора на НР България", том II, БАН, София, (1964),

Distribution in Bulgaria: In grassy and shrubby places in moderately wet meadows and glades, mostly in the western half of Bulgaria, in the foothills and mountains, reaching nearly 2,000 meters altitude. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.

Distribution: Almost all of Europe except the Arctic zone, the Caucasus, Western Siberia.

Conservation status and threats:  not protected species in Bulgaria by theBiodiversity Law. Законодателство на Република България: Закон за биологичното разнообразие

Medical plant: yes, it is -


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