Ranunculus acris L.
1078 (7). R. acris L., Sp. Pl. ed. 1 (1753) 554; Tutin, Fl. Eur. 1(1964) 227; R. acer L., I.5 c; Стоян. Стеф., Фл. Бълг. изд. 1, I (1924) 462; Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc. 1(1924) 337 — Обикновено лютиче
Fam: Ranunculaceae Juss.
Genus: Ranunculus L.
Species: Ranunculus acris L.
English Name: Meadow buttercup, Tall buttercup, Common buttercup and Giant buttercup
Perennial plant. The rhizome short; roots filamentous and corded, collected in a tight tuft. Stems erect, 30 - 70 (100) cm tall, non-thickened in the base tuberous, branched, covered, and leaf stems, short-lipped or almost bare. Basal leaves more than half or the base cut, with long stems, with loose hairs, rarely bare or almost bare: the shares 5 - 7, deeply cut into lancets or linear, sharp, entire or jagged little shares; the middle share of the basal leaves entire or triple, without stem; the lower stem leaves resemble the ground ones, but with shorter stems, the upper ones are sewn to the base, cut, linear, entire with 1 - 2 teeth. The blossom stem with short-lipped hairs. Blossoms numerous, 1.5 - 2.0 cm in diameter, golden yellow. Sepals 5, 4 - 7 mm long, ovate, lying or spreading fibrous. During flowering, they are erect and attached to the petals or slightly spread outwards. Petals 5, longer than calyx, back ovate or elliptic, shiny, golden-yellow. Fruit beds naked. Nuts 2 - 3 mm long, elliptical or rounded, flattened, smooth; the bow, short, upright.
1 The basal leaves cut to their base or almost to their base ............................................................................................................................... 2
f. lactectus(Beck) Penev comb. n .; R. acer f. latisectus (Beck) Nyar. Kv. Fl. III (1942) 226; R. acer β latisectus Beck, Fl. Nied. Österr. 1 (1890) 420; Hayek, 1st c. Central Stara Planina, Sofia region (Sofia, Plana), Rila (Samokov).
2 The middle part of the basal leaves narrowed in the form of a short handkerchief, with only 1 pair of lateral, linear, pointed teeth ........................... f. stipatus Nyar., 1. s. Middle Stara planina, Sofia region (Sofia, Belidie Khan), Vitosha district (Vitosha), Rila mountain.
2* The middle share of basal leaves basically more or less wide, without a stalker ………............................................................................…….. 3
3 The middle share of the basal leaves triple, with only 1 pair of side teeth f. napellifolius (Crantz) Penev comb. n .; R. acer f. napellifolius (Crantz) DC., Reg. Veg. Syst. Nat. 1 (1817) 282; R. napellifoliiis Crantz, Stirp. Austr. ed. 1, II (1763) 90. Middle Stara Planina, Sofia region (Sofia), Vitosha district (Vitosha), Pirin, Rila (Samokov region).
3* The middle share of the basal leaves shallow trident with more pieces and at least 2 pairs of lateral, narrow and sharp, located one above the other teeth, f. acris; R. acer f. multifidus (DC.) Nyar., op. c .; R. acris multifidus DC., Reg. Veg. Syst. Nat. 1 (1817) 278; R. acer ά typicus Beck, Fl. Nied. Österr. 1 (1890) 420; R. Stevenii auct. bulg. non Andrz. for var. Widespread.
From „Флора на НР България”, том IV, БАН, София, (1970)
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Ranunculus acris is a species of flowering plant in the family Ranunculaceae, and is one of the more common buttercups across Europe and temperate Eurasia. Common names include meadow buttercup, tall buttercup, common buttercup and giant buttercup.
This species is variable in appearance across the world. It is a somewhat hairy plant that has ascending, ungrooved flowing stems bearing glossy yellow flowers about 25 mm across. There are five overlapping petals borne above five green sepals that soon turn yellow as the flower matures. It has numerous stamens inserted below the ovary. The leaves are compound, with three lobed leaflets. Unlike Ranunculus repens, the terminal leaflet is sessile. As with other members of the genus, the numerous seeds are borne as achenes. This and other buttercups contain ranunculin, which breaks down to the toxin protoanemonin, a chemical that can cause dermatitis and vomiting.
The rare autumn buttercup (R. aestivalis) is sometimes treated as a variety of this species.
The plant is an introduced species across much of the world. It is a naturalized species and often a weed in parts of North America, but it is probably native in Alaska and Greenland. In New Zealand it is a serious pasture weed costing the dairy industry hundreds of millions of dollars. It has become one of the few pasture weeds that has developed a resistance to herbicides.
In horticulture the species may be regarded as a troublesome weed, colonising lawns and paths. However, it may be a welcome feature of wildflower meadows. The double-flowered cultivar R. acris 'Flore Pleno' has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Flowering Time: Blooms: V - VIII.
References: „Флора на НР България”, том IV, БАН, София, (1970), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Distribution in Bulgaria: Grow in the damp meadows and the grassy places along the roads and ditches. Spread, up to 2000 m altitude. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.
Distribution: Europe, Asia, Northern and Sauthern Africa, North America
Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by the Biodiversity Law. - Biological Diversity Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/zbran_22.08.15.pdf
Medical plant: it is not - Medicinal Plants Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/ZLR_en.pdf
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