Rhinanthus minor L.
2875 (1). R. minor L., Amoen. Acad. III (1756) 54; Vel., Fl. Bulg. Suppl. I (1898) 219; Soó et Webb, Fl. Eur. III (1972) 211; Alectorolophus minor(L.) Wimm. et Grab., Fl. Siles. II, 1 (1829) 212; Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc. II (1931) 191 — Малка клопачка
Fam: Scrophulariaceae Juss.
Genus: Rhinanthus L.
Species: Rhinanthus minor L.
English Name: Yellow rattle, Little Yellow rattle, Cockscomb
An annual plant. Stem 10 - 40 (-50) cm high, with 4-9 internodes, straight or branched, green or sometimes with longitudinal black lines, naked or diluted fiber, the branches shorter than the main stem. The leaves ovate oblong to linear lance, 20 - 40 mm long and (2-) 5 - 15 mm wide, shorter than the internodes of the stem, dull jagged to jagged, usually dark green; intercalary leaves are missing or rarely 1 - 3 pairs. The bracts are ovoid triangular, longer, equal or slightly shorter than the calyx, naked, pointed at the tip, sharp on the edge; toothed toe with decreasing dimensions. The calyx is naked or slightly sloppy on the rim, at the ripening of the fruit up to 15 mm long. The wreath yellow, 12 - 15 mm long, tube straight, shorter than calyx; the mouth more or less open; upper lip with whitish or violet rounded teeth shorter than 1 mm; the lower one spaced from the top. The box rounded, 9 - 10 mm in diameter. Seeds 3 - 4 mm long, with a wing about 1 mm wide.
Var. minor Stem straight or with several upright sterile branches. Internodes longer than leaves; without intercalary leaves or more rarely, only one pair. Widespread within the species. Spring ecotype.
Var. elatior Schur, Enum. PI. Transs. (1866) 511; R. minor subsp. elatior (Schur) Schwarz; Soó, Op. c. (1958) 365. Stem branched with arched blooming branches. Internodes shorter than leaves; intercalar leaves 2 - 3 pairs.
Western and Middle Stara Planina, Rila. Summer ecotype.
From „Флора на Република България”, том Х, БАН, София, (1995)
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Rhinanthus minor, the yellow rattle, little yellow rattle or cockscomb, is a flowering plant in the genus Rhinanthus in the family Orobanchaceae, native to Europe, northern North America, and Western Asia.
t is a hemi-parasitic herbaceous annual plant that gains some of its nutrients from the roots of neighbouring plants. It grows to 25–50 cm tall, with opposite, simple leaves, with a serrated margin. The flowers are yellow, produced on a terminal raceme. The fruit is a dry capsule, which contain loose, rattling seeds when ripe; the plant's name refers to these. Its preferred habitat is dry fields or meadows, where its flowering period is between June and September. The plant can associate with many different host species, notably Poaceae (grasses) and Fabaceae (legumes).
In Ireland and Scotland, this species is often associated with Machair habitat. Research at the UK's Centre for Ecology and Hydrology has shown that encouraging yellow rattle to grow in hay meadows greatly increases biodiversity by restricting grass growth and thereby allowing other species to thrive. The seeds are spread very effectively by traditional hay-making practices.
It can be cultivated by scarifying the surface of the ground with a fork or similar, then sowing onto short grass, 0.5–1 gram of seed per square metre. Yellow rattle seed is short-lived and should always be sown in the autumn, using seed harvested that year. Then, keep grass short for beginning of March when seedlings establish. Thereafter, the grass should not be cut until the end of July to allow the yellow rattle to flower and go to seed, then cut short.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Flowering Time: Blooms: V - VI, fruitfull: VII - VIII.
References: „Флора на Република България”, том Х, БАН, София, (1995), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Distribution in Bulgaria: Grow in mountain meadows. Western and Central Stara Planina, Sofia region, Vitosha region, Rila, Western and Central Rhodopes, 700 - 2500 m altitude. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.
Distribution: Europe (in the southern parts less often), Caucasus, Western Siberia.
Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by the Biodiversity Law. - Biological Diversity Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/zbran_22.08.15.pdf
Medical plant: yes, it is - Medicinal Plants Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/ZLR_en.pdf
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