Rosa canina L.
1477 (4). R. canina L.,Sp. Pl. ed. 1 (1753) 491 s. str.; Стоян. Стеф., Фл. Бълг. изд. 1,I (1924) 603; Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc. I (1926) 709; Klášt., Fl. Eur. 11(1968) 29; R. vulgaris Hegi, 111. Fl. Mitteleur. IV, 2 (1923) 1023; R. luteticma Lehm., Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris (1818) 93; R. transsilvanica Schur, Enum. PI. Transs. (1866) 202; R. andegavensis Bast., Essai Fl. Maine Loire (1809) 189; R. sphaerica Gren. ap. Billot in Schultz, Arch. Fl. Fr. Allem. (1854) 333 — Обикновена шипка
Fam: Rosaceae Juss.
Genus: Rosa L.
Species: Rosa canina L.
English Name: Dog rose
ђ. Shrub. Stems 1.5 - 3 (7) m tall with arched twigs. The bark is green or reddish, usually without blooming. The spikess are generally curved, broadly broad in cross-section, narrowly elliptical, less common or denser; Stems sometimes without spikes. Leaves 7 - 9 cm long; Leaf stems bare, smooth, rarely with single hairs or glandular bristles. Stipule in most cases narrow, more glandular along the edges. The leaves (5) 7 (9), most often elliptical, with a short tip, an average of 1.5 - 3 cm long and 1-1.5 cm wide, sharp toothed mostly with simple teeth, sometimes with a few secondary, rarely the teeth end with glands; on both sides nude and smooth, rarely on the main veins with single hairs, glandular bristles and small spines, the lower side lighter green, with a bluish paint. Flowers 4 - 6 cm in diameter, single or 3 - 5 in inflorescence. Flower stems equal to the length of the hip (flower bed), or double longer, bare, less often glandular bristles. The sepals broadly lance, the outside almost naked, the inner with white hairs, seldom naked; After blossoming turned back and clinging to the hail, early fall. Petals white, pale pink or sometimes bright pink. The columns assembled in a conical or spherical fibrous head. Fruits large, 2 - 2.5 cm long, broadly ovate to spherical, rarely glandular bristles, bright or light red.
Business importance. It is widely used as decorative and for decorative rosette pads. The fruits are used in medicine and in the food industry to prepare marmalades, flour, syrups and others. They contain vitamin C on average 513 mg% of crude.
Note. 1. The common rose has a large variation in a number of morphological features, which has led to its separation from many varieties. The studies we have carried out in this regard show that this polymorphism is due exclusively to the easy hybridization of the species with other species of hives. Traces of hybrids are very often observed:
R. canina L. x R. vosagiaca Desportes. Tall shrubs, like parental shapes. The leaves are not jagged. The seashells spread out or erect. Fruits rounded. Here are those reported by Stoyan. Stef. (1948) 607 for our flora subsp. globularis (Franchet) Hayek var. typica f. rhodopaensis Hruba.
R. canina L. x R. micrantha Sm. The hybrids of this combination inherit the glandular hairs on the flower stems, the different sizes of the leaflets and the columns. This corresponds to the subspecies taxa given for R. canina in Stoyan. Stef. (1948).
The different abundance of hairs on the underside of the leaves is a result of the frequent crosses of R. canina L. x R. corymbifera Borkh.
R. canina x R. gallica. Shrubs, 1 - 1.5m tall. The leaves are naked. Flowers greater than those of R. canina with intense pink hue. Stairs with white fibrous heads. Fruits large, spherical. The bushes of morphological scars resemble R. jundzillii Besser.
R. canina x R. myriacantha DC. Shrubs 1 m tall. The leaves are naked. The flowers are white. Fruits broadly ellipsoid, pink to darkly reddish. The shrubs of morphological scars resemble R. spinosissima L.
R. canina x R. pendulina (R. alpina x R. canina) Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc. (1929) 716. It is rarely encountered.
Note. 2. Given by Stoyan. Stef. (1948) 605 R. stylosa Desv. Var. systyla bast, from Anhialo and var. sadovensis Deg. Et Urum. from Sadovo village, Plovdiv region, and collected by us near the village of Hrabrino, Plovdiv region, we refer to R. canina L. They have no main trace - the length of the ladders. It varies greatly in the individual flowers of a bush: from typically sitting to more or less elongated. The other signs of the vegetative organs - leaves, spikes, etc. - completely coincide with those of ordinary hippie. Therefore, we do not accept to exist in our flora R. stylosa Desv.
From „Флора на НР България”, том V, БАН, София, (1973)
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Rosa canina, commonly known as the dog rose, is a variable climbing, wild rose species native to Europe, northwest Africa, and western Asia.
It is a deciduous shrub normally ranging in height from 1–5 metres (3.3–16.4 ft), though sometimes it can scramble higher into the crowns of taller trees. Its stems are covered with small, sharp, hooked prickles, which aid it in climbing. The leaves are pinnate, with 5-7 leaflets. The flowers are usually pale pink, but can vary between a deep pink and white. They are 4–6 centimetres (1.6–2.4 in) in diameter with five petals, and mature into an oval, 1.5–2-centimetre (0.59–0.79 in), red-orange fruit, or hip.
From DNA analysis using amplified fragment length polymorphisms of wild-rose samples from a transect across Europe (900 samples from section Caninae, and 200 from other sections), it has been suggested that the following named species are best considered as part of a single Rosa canina species complex, and are therefore synonyms of R. canina:
- R. balsamica Besser
- R. caesia Sm.
- R. corymbifera Borkh.
- R. dumalis Bechst.
- R. montana Chaix
- R. stylosa Desv.
- R. subcanina (Christ) Vuk.
- R. subcollina (Christ) Vuk.
- R. × irregularis Déségl. & Guillon
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Flowering Time: Blooms: V - VIII.
References: From „Флора на НР България”, том V, БАН, София, (1973), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Distribution in Bulgaria: Growing in shrubs, grassy slopes, along rivers, rivers, by boundary etc. In the plains and mountains, from the sea level up to 2000 m altitude. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.
Distribution: Europe (north to 62° N), Southwestern Asia, North Africa; Transferred to Central Asia and North America.
Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by the Biodiversity Law. - Biological Diversity Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/zbran_22.08.15.pdf
Medical plant: it is not - Medicinal Plants Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/ZLR_en.pdf
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