Salvia nemorosa L.

2709 (11). S. nemorosa L., Sp. Pl., ed. 2 (1762) 35; Vel., Fl. Bulg. (1891) 446; Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc., II (1929) 311; Hedge, Fl. Eur., III (1972) 191; S. silvestris auct. bulg., non L.; S. villicaulis auct. bulg., non Borb.; Exs.: PI. Bulg. Exsicc. No 870 — Горска какула 

Fam:   Labiatae Juss. (Lamiaceae)
Genus:   Salvia L.
Species: Salvia nemorosa L.
English Name: Woodland sage or Balkan clary


Perennial plant;. Stem 30 - 50 cm high, upright or slightly upward with adherent or bent, short simple hairs. The leaves are entire, 30 - 100 mm long and 12 - 40 mm wide, oblong lance, basically heart-shaped or rounded, on top short to long pointed, wrinkled; above bare or with few simple hairs, pale green, underneath to the naked, finely jugged to a round jagged; petioles 10 - 80 mm long with adherent or bent simple hairs; the top leaves sitting down. Bracts ovoid,  sitting down or including the blossom axis, tapered; on both sides usually nude, on the edge fringed, violet or reddish; the buds of the bract tile-like ordered, durable. Vertebrate consist 2 – 6 blossoms, usually 2 - 24 in number, converged; the axis with bent simple hairs. The blossom petioles 2 - 3 mm long, with simple hairs without bracts. The calyx 6 - 8 mm long, trumpet bell-shaped, an affluent fibrous up to almost naked with glandular hair; with the fruit growing; the upper lip rounded, with three convergent teeth, with the fruit deeply concave, double-edged; the lower one with oblong, pointed teeth longer than the upper one. Corolla 8 - 12 mm long, bright red to violet blue; the upper lip slightly sick, incised with short white, simple and glandular hairs, shorter than the lower; the latter with short, elongated, protruding side and middle elliptical, incised, curved and adjacent to the calyx share; the style swollen at the top, equally long or longer than the calyx, inside the naked. Stamens shorter than the upper lip, hidden in it or along with the style longer than it; articulated at the point of attachment of the stamen petiole with the anther link; the petioles shorter than the anthers; shoulders unequal; the lower anther pouch reduced in a simple chisel plate, sterile. The style longer than the upper lip. Nuts 2 mm long and 1.5 mm wide, more or less egg-shaped, dark brown with a darker strip along the length, especially on the back.

Note. Species for Bulgaria S. nemorosa subsp. tesquicola (Klokov et Pobed.) Soo (Hedge, 1972), unknown to Bulgarian authors.

S. nemorosa x nutans (S. x betonicufolia Etling., Comment. Salvia (1777) 48; S. pedulina Vahl., Enum., I (1805) 281.

Point out for the Black Sea coast (North, near Kaliakra and Baltata - Dav, 1905).

From:   „Флора на НР България”, том IX, БАН, София (1989)

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Salvia nemorosa, the woodland sage or Balkan clary, is a hardy herbaceous perennial plant native to a wide area of central Europe and Western Asia.
It is an attractive plant that is easy to grow and propagate, with the result that it has been passed around by gardeners for many years. Its wide distribution, long history, and the ease with which it hybridizes have resulted in many cultivars and hybrids—along with problems in clearly identifying the hybrids and their relationship with S. nemorosa. It was named and described by Carl Linnaeus in 1762, with nemorosa ("of woods") referring to its typical habitat in groves and woods.[1]
In northern Britain, Salvia nemorosa and Salvia pratensis are both in danger of disappearing due to depredation from slugs.[2]
The many inflorescences have closely spaced whorls of small flowers with brightly colored calyces.


Leaves of Salvia nemorosa have been used in Turkish medicine to stop bleeding by applying externally. Diterpenes and triterpenes have been isolated from aerial parts of S. nemorosa: nemorone, nemorosin, horminone, 7-acetylhorminone, salvinemorol, megastigmane glycosides (salvionosides A, B and C), pachystazone, salvipisone, α-amyrin, ursolic and oleanolic acids, stigmast-7-en-3-one, 24-methylenecycloartanol, stigmast-4-en-3-one, β-sitosterol, stigmast-7-enol, as well as flavonoids salvigenin, eupatilin, apigenin and luteolin.[13]

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Flowering Time: Blooms: V - IX (-X)

Distribution in Bulgaria: Growing on dry, grassy places and in the bushes in the plains, foothills and mountains. Distributed, from sea level up to 2000 m altitude. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.

Distribution: Central and Southeast Europe, Southwest Asia (Asia Minor, Iran, Afghanistan), Caucasus. Introduced and grown in North America and North Africa.

Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by the Biodiversity Law. - Biological Diversity Act -

Medical plant: Yes, it is! - Medicinal Plants Act -

References: „Флора на НР България”, том IX, БАН, София (1989), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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