Silene dichotoma Ehrh.

Silene dichotoma Ehrh., Beitr. Naturk. VII (1792) 144; Waldst. et Kit., PL Rar. Hung. 1 (1802) 28, t. 29; Rohrb., Monogr. Silene (1868) 94; F. N. Williams, Joum. Linn. Soc. XXXII (1898) 55; Reichenb., Icon. FL Germ. VI (1844) t. CCLXXX, f. 5071; Vel, Fl. Bulg. (1891) 59; Hayek, Prodr. FL Penins. Balc. I (1924) 260 — Дихотомично плюскавиче

Fam:   Caryophyllaceae Juss.
Genus:   Silene L.
Species: Silene dichotoma Ehrh.
English Name: Forked catchfly


Annual, fiber, 25 - 100 cm tall plant. Stems single, often several, erect, green, thick curly fibrous, smooth. Leaves entire, without cartilage edge, bottom, and sometimes above, curly fiber; basal leaves lance shovel-like, elliptical to lanceolate, to 11 cm long, 1.2 - 2.5 mm wide; Stem 5 - 9 pairs, lance elliptical or lanceolate, to 12 cm long, 1.2 - 3.5 cm wide; lower on stems, upper sessile. Inflorescence top dihaziy, units developed in 5 - 20-blossomed monohazii to 10 - 28 cm long. Bracts herbaceous or tunicates, blossoms hermaphrodite or female with sterile stamens, 2.5 to 3 mm long stems. Calyx 10 - 14.5 mm long, 3.5 - 4 mm wide, membranous, almost flat base, pipe-like cylindrical at the bottom slightly narrowed fetal tightly to him, bulging in the middle at the top with five triangular , 2 mm long teeth, a goal, membranous smooth edge, with 10 green which do not form anastomosis parallel veins, intercostal the calyx is naked or with rare short curly or straight hairs, hairs on veins are 1 (2) lines straight or slightly curved. Petals white; nail linear wedge, usually vague veins, rarely with three clear parallel veins, 8.5 - 11.5 mm long, about 2 mm wide, reaching the height of teeth or about 1.5 - 2 mm protruding above them; tab to 3/4 binary, reverse ovate entire ribbon or incorrect toothed, 7 - 8 mm in length, about 3.5 mm wide units, at the base of the column with two fleshy at the top with pointed or rounded shares. Filaments handles naked. Pistils goal. Karpoforo goal, 2 to 2.5 cm long. Bars 3 – 4. Fruit box before dissolution is cylindrical trammel, basically short tapered, at the top shorter or longer conical, 4.5 - 9 mm long, 3 - 4 mm wide, with 2.5 - 3 mm wide hole to the base of the teeth has three slots. Seeds kidney-brown, 1.5 - 1.6 mm long, with warts; warts pointed, with black tips.

Note. S. dichotoma is highly polymorphic species. Variations observed in the size of leves, in the nature of hairy, in size and hairy of the calyx, shape and position of the fetus box, the ratio of the latter to the calyx, size of the seeds and others. Most often the average forms and forms the northern part of the Balkan Peninsula are united in subsp. dichotoma, and forms the average n the southern part of the Balkan Peninsula and Southwest Asia were brought to subsp. racemosa (Otth) Hayek (1924). In Bulgaria species is represented by several forms which are grown under various ecologically conditions and morphological more or less differ from each other. One of  these forms is described by the Rhodope Mountains as S. racemosa subsp. rumelica Porm. (Form., 1896). Another characteristic form that occurs widely on the cliffs between Sozoopol and Resovo morphologic no different from the mountainous Caucasian type S. talyschensis Schischk. (Schischk., 1920-22), but as this form and all intraspecific taxonomic diversity of S. dichotoma need further studies.
For Bulgaria by Grisebach (1843) and Hayek (1924), most likely wrong, says Greek plant and S dichotoma subsp. racemosa var. sibthorpiana (Reichenb.) Hayek, which is distinguished from other forms of the species in that the crown of the corolla is reduced to two small warts.

From: „Флора на НР България”, том III, БАН, София, (1967)

Silene dichotoma is a species of flowering plant in the pink family known by the common name forked catchfly. It is native to Eurasia and it is known in other parts of the temperate world, such as sections of North America, where it is a weed that grows in disturbed habitat. It is an annual herb growing up to 80 centimeters tall. The lance-shaped leaves are up to 8 centimeters long on the lower stem and are smaller farther up. Each flower is encapsulated in an inflated calyx of sepals lined with ten dark veins. It is open at the tip, revealing five white to red petals, each with two lobes at the tip and sometimes taking a curled form.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Flowering Time: Blooms: V - VI.

References: „Флора на НР България”, том III, БАН, София, (1967)

Distribution in Bulgaria: In grassy and stony places. Spread throughout Bulgaria up to 700 m altitude. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.

Distribution: Central (central and eastern) and Southeastern Europe (Balkans), the Caucasus, Southwest Asia.

Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by theBiodiversity Law. Законодателство на Република България: Закон за биологичното разнообразие

Medical plant: it is not medical plant -


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