Smyrnium perfoliatum L.

2188 (1). S. perfoliatum L., Sp. PI. ed. 1 (1753) 262; Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc. I (1927) 1070; Tutin, Fl. Eurг. II (1968) 328 — Пронизанолистен трибел

Fam:  Umbelliferae Juss. (Apiaceae)
Genus:   Smyrnium L.
Species: Smyrnium perfoliatum L.
English Name: Perfoliate alexanders


Biennial plants. Root 2 - 6 cm long and 1 – 2,5 cm thick, with an ovoid to a conical shape or an elongated cylindrical, the top tapered. Stem 40 - 120 (-150) cm high and 0,5 - 1 cm thick, single or less 2, upright, at the beginning dense, later hollow, elongated, often pentagonal, 3 or 4 edges with narrow or wide almost as walls, thin, membranous wings, edge with stellate hairs, located on a broad basis; in the upper part branching to successive outerwear branches, only in the nodes fiber. Leaves bare, yellow-green; basal and the lower stem leaves with 10 - 20 cm long stems, basically extended form tunicates vaginas, 1 - 2 times triple divided, elongated ovoid to broadly ovate, basically nearly heart-shaped partitions, 4 - 8 cm long and 2 - 5 cm wide, at the edge dumb rasper-like a serrated; middle stem leaves triple or deep lobed, sessile widely tunicates and ciliates vaginas, the above entire ovoid or oblong ovoid, sometimes triangular, on the edge blunt serrated, basically rounded, heart-shaped deep with wrap-around trunk units and often mutually overlapping; the top broadly elliptic to almost round and in the end clearly jagged teeth and cartilage tip. Sophisticated awnings are located on the stems or sessile; main rays 5 - 12, unequal long, naked, keeled, at the base without sheath. Awnings 0.5 - 1 cm wide, with many flowers, basically without bracts. The teeth of the calyx very small, subtle. Petals yellow, extended back ovoid. Fruits 2,5 – 3,5 mm long and 5 – 5,5 mm wide, reddish-brown to nearly black, laterally oblate, underlying heart-shaped, wrinkled surface; Karpoforo to the base expanded almost as much as the stem fetal; mericarps almost spherical, in cross sections elliptical, on the outside with 3 thin main ribs, preferably protruding in the upper half.


F. perforatum. The top leaves broadly oval to nearly circular, the edges blurred, shallow, dumb jagged. Widespread.
F. kitaibelii (DC.) Jav., Mag. Fl. (1924) 769; S. perfoliatum var. kitaibelii DC., Prodr. IV (1830) 247. The top leaves elongated ovoid, the edge clearly jagged and the teeth of cartilage. Vitosha Region (Vitosha).

Economic significance. Fruits contain essential oil with characteristic odor and dark purple color. The roots and leaves have a strong pleasant smell and are used as a spice. Cultivated as an ornamental plant.

Flowering Time: Blooms: V - VII.

References: From  „Флора на НР България”, том VIII, БАН, София, (1982)

Distribution in Bulgaria: Grow in deciduous forests and bushes. Black sea coast, Fore, Stara Planina, Sofia region, Znepole area, Vitosha Region, West Frontier Mountains, Struma valley, Belasitza, Pirin, Rila and Rhodope Mountains and Thracian Valley (Haskovo - v. Melissa) to 1200 m altitude. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.

Distribution: Southern Europe (Spain, Portugal, France, Italy, Hungary, Romania, Crimea and the Balkans), north to Czechoslovakia, Mediterranean, Caucasus and Southwest Asia (Asia Minor).

Transferred to Central (Germany and Austria) and Northern Europe (Denmark).

Conservation status and threats: protected species in Bulgaria by the Biodiversity Law. - Biological Diversity Act -

Medical plant: it is not - Medicinal Plants Act -

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