Stachys sylvatica L.

2664 (7). S. sylvatica L., Sp. Pl., ed. 1 (1753) 580; Vel., Fl. Bulg. (1891) 455; Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc., II (1929) 288; Ball, Fl. Eur., III (1972) 154; S. sylvatica var. pycnotricha Borb. ex Mag. orv. es. term, vizsg. munk., XXI, (1881) 313; nom. n.; Exc.: Pl. Bulg. Exicc. No 962 — Горски чистец 

Fam:   Labiatae Juss. (Lamiaceae)
Genus:   Stachys L.
Species: Stachys sylvatica L.
English Name: Hedge woundwort, Whitespot, Hedge nettle


Perennial plant. The rhizome is long, creeping, strongly branched, with adventurous roots. Stem upright, 30 - 120 cm high, simple or in the inflorescence branched, with spreading simple and abundant glandular hairs. The leaves are dark green, loose fibrous, 4 - 14 cm long, 2 - 8 cm wide, all with petioles, medullary ovoid, sharp at the top, large serrated, pricling elongated, glandular fibrous. The vertebrae with 3 - 6 blossoms, separated into vertebral wheatear-like inflorescences. The bracts are sparse and up to 1 mm long. The calyx bell-shaped, 6 - 8 mm long, glandular fibrous, the teeth triangularly lance, uniform, almost equal to the tube, with the fruit curved. Corolla 15 - 18 mm long, dark red with white spots, glandular fiber, tubing 10 - 12 mm long, longer than calyx; upper lip 4 - 5 mm long, lower 6 - 8 mm, 3-part, middle share broad ovate. Nuts back ovoid, bulging, 2,2 mm long, 1,5 mm wide, black brown, abdominal edge reaching to the upper.

Note. The indumentum varies from scattered to densely fibrous, depending on shading in the habitat, that is why it has no taxonomic value.

From:  „Флора на Н Р България”, том IX, БАН, София, (1989)

*   *   *

Stachys sylvatica, commonly known as hedge woundwort,[1] whitespot,[2] or sometimes as hedge nettle, is a perennial herb growing to 80 cm tall in woodland and unmanaged grassland. In temperate zones of the northern hemisphere it flowers in July and August. The flowers are purple. The leaves, when crushed or bruised, give off an unpleasant fetid smell.[3]


Hedge woundwort is an erect perennial plant with slender underground runners and grows to a height of about 30 to 100 cm (12 to 39 in). The stem branches occasionally and is squarish and hairy, with glandular hairs on the upper part of the plant. The nodes are widely spaced and the mid-green, stalked leaves are in opposite pairs. The leaf blades are hairy, have a cordate base and are ovate with a blunt tip and with regular large teeth on the margin. The inflorescence forms a dense terminal spike and is composed of dense whorls of purple flowers with white markings. The calyx has five lobes and the corolla forms a two-lipped flower about 12 to 18 mm (0.47 to 0.71 in) long with a fused tube. The upper lip of each flower is convex with dense, glandular hairs and the lower lip is three-lobed, the central lobe being the largest. There are four stamens, two long and two short, the gynoecium has two fused carpels and the fruit is a four-chambered schizocarp. The plant has a slightly unpleasant smell.[4]

Distribution and habitat

Hedge woundwort is native to Europe and central and western Asia. It grows in dappled shade at the edge of woods, in hedgerows and on rough ground.[5]


Hedge woundwort is popular with bees.[4] Along with its close relatives field woundwort and marsh woundwort, as their common names suggest, they are used to promote the healing of wounds. The famous 17th century herbalist John Gerard was very impressed with its powers and used it extensively.[6]

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

*   *   *

Flowering Time: Blooms: VI - VIII, fruitful: VII - IX.

Distribution in Bulgaria: Growing in shady deciduous and coniferous forests in foothills and mountains. Spread from 200 to 1500 meters above sea level. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.

Distribution: Europe (up to 69° N in Norway, more commonly in the Mediterranean), Caucasus, Western Siberia, Central Asia (Altai), Southwest Asia (Asia Minor). Transferred to North America.

Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by the Biodiversity Law. - Biological Diversity Act -

Medical plant: yes, it is - Medicinal Plants Act -

References: „Флора на Н Р България”, том IX, БАН, София, (1989), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.


© K.Nanev


© Copy right: K. Nanev© 2012. All rights reserved