Tilia platyphyllos Scop.
2036 (1), T. platyphyllos Scop., Fl. Carn. ed. 2, I (1772) 373; Koch, Dendrol. I (1869) 470; Browicz, Fl. Eur. II (1968) 248; T. grandifolia Ehrh., Beitr. Naturk. V (1970) 158; T. officinarum Crantz, Strip. Austr. II (1763) 65, p.p.; Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc. I (1925) 555; Exs.: Pl. Exicc. Poloniae, Kornik No 2231, 2228 — Едролистна липа
Fam: Tiliaceae Juss.
Genus: Tilia L.
Species: Tilia platyphyllos Scop.
English Name: Largeleaf linden, Large-leaved linden, Large-leaved lime
Perennial plant. Root system developed in depth, the root with short side branches, giving shoots. Stems up to 40 m high, right. The young bark is ash-gray, old 3 cm thick, dark brown to black, roughly cracked longitudinally. Branches are incorrectly curved, spread or bent, the crown dense, cylindrical or irregular. The young branches are greyish, with falling, scattered, simple or starved hairs. Pimples 5 - 7 mm long, tapering ovoid, dark gray, with dropping star-like hairs, with 3 flakes. Leaf petioles 2.0 - 4.5 cm long, densely packed with simple hairs. Leaves 6,0 - 17,5 cm long, 4 - 12 cm wide, broadly heartbead, with a slightly asymmetrical base, to the top gradually narrowed, irregularly jagged to improperly finely toothed, without hooks like hooks, on top dark green, on the veins and the surface covered with simple or star-shaped hair or bare, bottom-gray, completely covered with colorless, simple or mixed with star-like hair, rarely with groups of colorless hairs in the corners of the main veins, along the edge of the grooves. The inflorescence leaflet 3.5 - 12.0 cm long, 0.8 - 2.2 cm wide, lance to linear, rounded to the top, and has grown to 1/2 with the axis of the inflorescence covered with star-like hairs. Blossoms 3 - 14, bipolar, blossom petiole covered with stellar veins. Calyx leaflets 4.5 - 7.5mm long, 2.0 - 3.5mm wide, backward-heartbeat, outwardly covered with layered simple, inwardly entirely or with long-stitched long hair; petals 6,0 - 8,5 mm long, 1,8 - 2,5mm wide, ovate, without the claw, spread outward, entire on the edge or irregularly jagged, on the surface with single simple hairs or bare, pale yellow; stamens slightly longer than the crown; the stamens less shorter than corolla, the style shorter of them. The nut is spherical, 0.8 - 1.0 cm long, 0.7 - 0.9 cm wide, hard, with 4 distinct ribs, covered with thick simple hairs.
From: „Флора на Н Р България”, том XII, БАН, София, (1979)
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Tilia platyphyllos is a species of flowering plant in the family Malvaceae (Tiliaceae). It is a deciduous tree, native to much of Europe, including locally in southwestern Great Britain, growing on lime-rich soils. The common names largeleaf linden and large-leaved linden are in standard use throughout the English-speaking world except in the British Isles, where it is widely, but not universally, known as large-leaved lime. The name "lime", possibly a corruption of "line" originally from "lind", has been in use for centuries and also attaches to other species of Tilia. It is not, however, closely related to the lime fruit tree, a species of citrus.
The specific epithet platyphyllos means "with broad leaves".
Tilia platyphyllos is a narrowly domed tree with a moderate growth rate, and can eventually attain a height of 40 m. The reddish-brown young stems later develop dark grey bark with fine fissures and furrows. The branches spread upwards at wide angles. The twigs are reddish-green and slightly pubescent.The foliage consists of simple, alternately arranged leaves. As indicated by its common name, this tree has larger leaves than the related Tilia cordata (small-leaved linden), 6 to 9 cm (exceptionally 15 cm). They are ovate to cordate, mid to dark green above and below, with white downy hair on the underside, particularly along the veins, tapering into a mucronate tip. The margin is sharply serrate, and the base cordate; the venation is palmate along a midrib. The pubescent petiole is usually 3–4 cm long, but can vary between 1.5–5 cm. The autumn foliage is yellow-green to yellow.
The small, fragrant, yellowish-white flowers are arranged in drooping, cymose clusters in groups of 3 to 4. Their whitish-green, leaf-like bracts have an oblong-obovate shape. The geniculate peduncles are between 1.5–3 cm long. The hermaphroditic flowers have 5 sepals and 5 tepals, numerous stamens, but no staminodes. The superior ovary is 2–10 locular with one smooth style. The flowers are pollinated by bees. The fruit is a small, round, tomentose, cream-colored nutlet with a diameter of 1 cm or less. It has a woody shell with 3–5 ridges.
Tilia platyphyllos is widely planted throughout the temperate world as an ornamental tree in parks and city streets. Numerous cultivars are available, including 'Aurea', (golden leafed), 'Fastigiata', 'Laciniata' (seemingly torn leaves), 'Örebro' (columnar), 'Princes Street' (narrow crown), 'Rubra' (red twigged), 'Tortuosa' (twisted branches), and 'Tiltstone Filigree' (upswept branches).
The cultivar 'Rubra' has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.
Fossils of Tilia platyphyllos have been described from the fossil flora of Kızılcahamam district in Turkey, which is of early Pliocene age.
Tilia wood is used for carving, and almost all parts of the tree can be used for fodder, ropes or firewood. Bast and honey, which were historically the main products of Tilia, may have been an important factor in the spread of the species and its status as a typical agroforestry tree in the Middle Ages. Tilia spp. are also important for amenity use, shelterbelts and game plantings in the open landscape, in urban areas and recreational forestry.
The plant also contains tannins that can act as an astringent. The wood is burned to charcoal and ingested for intestinal disorders and used topically for edema or infection, such as cellulitis or ulcers of the lower leg.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Flowering Time: Blooms: VI - VII, fruitful: VII - IX.
Distribution in Bulgaria: Growing on humid and warm gorges, on wet and deep soils, mixed deciduous forests, foothills and mountains. Distributed, except for the Strandzha Mountain, from 500 to 1600 m altitude. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.
Distribution: Central and Southern Europe (east to western Ukraine, north to northern France and southwest Sweden), the Caucasus.
Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by the Biodiversity Law. - Biological Diversity Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/zbran_22.08.15.pdf
Medical plant: yes, it is medical plant - Medicinal Plants Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/ZLR_en.pdf
References: „Флора на Н Р България”, том XII, БАН, София, (1979), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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