Torilis arvensis (Huds.) Link
2173 (2). T. arvensis (Huds.) Link, Enum, Hort. Berol. Alt. I (1821) 265; Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc. I (1927) 1065, p.p.; Cannon, Fl. Eur. II (1968) 371, p. p,; Caucalis arvensis Huds., Fl. Angl. ed. 1 (1762) 98; Torilis infesta (L.) Clairv., Man. Herb. (1811) 78; Стоян. Стеф., Фл. Бълг. изд. l,i II (1925) 807 — Полски торилис
Fam: Umbelliferae Juss. (Apiaceae}
Genus: Torilis Adans.
Species: Torilis arvensis (Huds.) Link
English Name: Spreading hedgeparsley, Tall sock-destroyer and Common hedge parsley
An annual plant. Stem 30 - 80 (-100) cm high, erect, most often branched from the base. Basal leaves with short petioles and semi-cylindrical, narrowly membranous vagina at the end, triangularly ovate or triangular oblong, 2 to 3 times cut; the upper leaves are crouched and only once crested; main lobes ovate lance to ellipsoid lance, feather-like cut; end lobes sharply serrated. Complicated umbrellas with long petioles; the main rays (4) 5 - 12, covered with short, sitting down and pointed bristly hairs, at the base without a wrapping or less frequently with 1 (2) unequal leaflets. Sunshades with bisexual and stamens blossoms; bracts oblong to lance to linearly styliform, membranous, longer than the blossom petioles. Calyx with ovate lance sharp teeth. Petals white or reddish, broadly back ovoid, apex with a narrow deep cut, and a cut with a short curved inward notch, at the base with a very short nail, covered with short, adherent hairs on the dorsal side, exterior to the peripheral blossoms elongated and often asymmetrical up to 1.5 - 2.0 mm long. Fruits 3 - 5 mm long, ovoid, wholly both mericarpes covered with spikes or less often the outer ones with spikes, internal with warts, spikes equal in length to mericarpium widths and curved to the apex, rough with pointed teeth and apex; carpophore to middle bipartite; the styles at the base bristly-fibrous, 2 to 6 times longer than the stylopodium; endosperm in cross section with kidney shape.
Subsp. arvensis; T. arvensis subsp. divaricata (Moench) Thell. and Hegi, III. Fl. Mitteleur. V, 2 (1926) 1055; T. divaricata Moench, Meth. Suppl. (1802) 34; T. arvensis var. arvensis; Stoyan. Steph. Kitan, Fl. Bulgarian. ed. 4, I (1967) 769. The outer petals of the final flowers are up to 1.5 mm long, slightly larger than the others. Stems shorter than 1 mm, 2 - 3 times longer than the stylopodium. Distributed.
Subsp. neglecta (Schult.) Thell. I.e .; T. neglecta Schult., Syst. Veget. VI (1820) 484; Stoyan. Stef., Fl. Bulgarian. ed. 1, II (1925) 807; T. arvensis var, neglecta (Schult.) Lange and Willk. et Lange, Prodr. Fl. Hisp. III (1874) 15; Stoyan. Steph. Kitan, op. c. ed. 4, II "(1967) 770. Outer petals of marginal flowers up to 2 mm long, significantly larger than the others.
Economic importance. The fruit has been found to contain the flavone aglycone luteolin and 7-rhamnosyl glycoside of luteolin.
From: „Флора на Н. Р. България”, VIII, БАН, София, (1982)
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Torilis arvensis is a species of flowering plant in the family Apiaceae known by the common names spreading hedgeparsley, tall sock-destroyer and common hedge parsley. It is native to parts of Europe and it is known elsewhere, such as North America, as an introduced species and a common weed. It grows in many types of habitat, especially disturbed areas. It is an annual herb producing a slender, branching, rough-haired stem up to a meter in maximum height. The alternately arranged leaves are each divided into several pairs of lance-shaped leaflets up to 6 centimeters long each. The leaflet is divided or deeply cut into segments or teeth. The inflorescence is a wide open compound umbel of flower clusters on long, slender rays. Each flower has five petals which are unequal in size and are white with a pinkish or reddish tinge. Each greenish or pinkish fruit is 3 to 5 millimeters long and is coated in straight or curving prickles.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Flowering Time: Blooms: VI - VII
Distribution in Bulgaria: Growing in dry grassy and stony places, along roadsides, in arable desert land, in shrubs and rare forests, and sometimes as weeds in crops. Extended up to 900 m above sea level. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.
Distribution: Western, Central (East to Lower Volga) and Southern Europe, Mediterranean, Caucasus, Central, Southwest and East Asia and South Africa. Transferred to North America and Australia.
Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by the Biodiversity Law. - Biological Diversity Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/zbran_22.08.15.pdf
Medical plant: yes, it is medicinal plant - Medicinal Plants Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/ZLR_en.pdf
References: „Флора на Н. Р. България”, VIII, БАН, София, (1982), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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