Viola alba Bess.

2067 (4). V. alba Bess., Prim. Fl. Galic. I (1809) 171; Vel., Fl. Bulg. (1891) 51; Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc. I (1925) 502; Valent. Merxm. et A. Schmidt, Fl. Eur. II (1968) 272; V. odorata var. alba (Bess.) DC., Prodr. I (1824) 296; V. virescens Jord. in Bor., Fl. Centr. Fr. ed. 3, II (1857) 77; V. armena Boiss. et Heldr., Diagn. Pl. Or. Nov. ser. 2, V (1856) 48 — Бяла теменуга

Fam:   Violaceae Batsch
Genus:   Viola L.
Species: Viola alba Bess.
English Name: White violet


Perennial plant. Stemless 2 - 10 (20) cm high. Rhizome branched, at the top with 3 - 10 leaves, flowers and 10 - 20 cm long, 1.5 mm thick, raised, non-rooting aboveground shoots, with consecutive triangular heart-shaped leaves and flowers at the top in the first year. Leaves with petioles, green or dark green, often overwintering and violet below, broadly heart-shaped to triangular- heart-shaped or ovate- heart-shaped, with a deep and narrow cut at the base, finely on the edge, shallow dumb serrated, widest in the lower third , and narrowed upwards with an almost straight, rarely with a convex or concave edge at an acute point, 1.5 - 7.0 (9.0) cm long, 1.5 - 5.0 cm wide, up to 1.5 times longer than wide with 2 - 10 (15) cm long petioles, covered, especially on the petioles, with rough, turned back (up to 1.2 mm long) hairs, rarely almost naked. Stipules linear lance to linear, 1.2 - 2.0 cm long and about 2 mm wide, 6 - 10 times longer than wide, along the edge with lashes longer than half their width, bare or fibrous, pointed. Flower petioles 4 - 6 (8) cm long, naked or with backward bristles, with two bracts above the middle. Flowers 1 - 8, from the top of the rhizome, single in the axils of the rosette leaves or at the top of the shoots, broadly ovate, 1.5 - 2.0 (2.4) cm high and 1.2 - 1.8 cm wide, with an odor. Sepals oblong-ovate or oblong-elliptic, with appendages 4 - 7 mm long, 1.0 - 2.0 (2.5) mm wide, obtuse. Appendages rounded, 1 - (2) mm long. Petals white or purple, rarely red-purple or red; upper back ovate or broadly back ovate, 9 - 11 mm long, 6 - 7 mm wide, curved backwards and sideways; lateral back ovate, 9.0 - 10.5 mm long and 5 - 6 mm wide, at the base with few cilia directed forward and downward; lower petal oblong-ovate, spoon-shaped, incised, with spur 12 - 15 (17) mm long, 5 - 7 (8) mm wide, narrowed at the base into 3 - 4 mm long grooved, ciliate claw inside, passing into the spur; spur directed upwards, 4 - 5 mm long, straight, obtuse, pale purple or whitish, 3 - 4 times longer than the calyx appendages. The ovary is fibrous; the style thickened from the base to the top; the stigma entire, straight or slightly curved beak, equal to or longer than the width of the style. The box is spherical, 8 - 10 mm in diameter, lying on the ground, yellow-brown to brown-violet, white bristly fibrous. Seeds pale yellow, ovoid, 2.0 - 2.5 mm long and about 1.5 mm wide; appendage about 1 mm long.


1    Stolons are sometimes missing. Leaves most often broadly triangular-heart-shaped, 1 - 1.25 times longer than broad, narrowed from the lower third to the apex with a convex, rarely with a straight edge at an acute tip, scattered shortly fibrous. The flowers are purple or white, less often red-violet. Lateral petals with few lashes at the base. The box is short bristly fibrous .......... subsp. dehnhardtii (Ten.) Becker, Veilh. Bayer. Fl. (1902) 11; V. dehnhardii Ten., In Ind. I am. Hort. Neap. (1830) 12; V. odorata β dehnhardtii Boiss., Fl. Or., I (1867) 458; V. cretica Boiss. et Heldr., Diagn. Pl. Or. Nov. ser. 1, VIII (1849) 51. Distributed, mainly in Southern Bulgaria.
1* Stolons developed. Leaves often overwintering, dark green or light green, triangular- heart-shaped or ovoid- heart-shaped, (1.0) 1.25 - 1.50 times longer than broad, from the lower third upwards narrowed with a straight or concave, rarely with a convex edge at an acute tip, coarsely fibrous. The box is coarsely fibrous.
2 The leaves are light green, most often non-overwintering. Flowers white with yellow-green spur. The box is yellow-brown ......................... subsp. white green. It is not found in Blgaria.
2 * Leaves dark green, sometimes purple below, most often overwintering. Flowers purple or white, rarely red with a purple spur. The box is brown-violet ............................. subsp. scotophylla (Jord.) Nyman, Consp. (1878) 78; Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc., 1 (1925) -502; V. scotophylla Jord., Obs., 7 (1849) 9. Common

From:   „Флора на Н Р България”, том VII, Изд. на Б А Н, София, (1979)

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Viola alba Besser is an accepted name

From: › tpl1.1 › record › kew-2463476

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Viola alba, commonly known as white violet, is a species of violet in the family Violaceae.
Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft zur Erforschung der heimischen Flora 8:257. 1902

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Flowering Time: Blooms: III - IV, fruitful: V - VII.

References: „Флора на Н Р България”, том VII, Изд. на Б А Н, София, (1979), › tpl1.1 › record › kew-2463476, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Distribution in Bulgaria: Growing in deciduous forests and shrubs on the foothills and mountain belt. Widespread, from 100 to 1200 m above sea level. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.

Distribution: Northern (Sweden), Western, Central and Eastern Europe, Northwest Africa (Algeria), Caucasus, Southwest Asia (Asia Minor). Economic significance. It is rarely grown as an ornamental plant.

Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by the Biodiversity Law. - Biological Diversity Act -

Medical plant: no, it is not - Medicinal Plants Act -


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