Viola arvensis Murr.
2094 (31). V. arvensis Murr., Prodr. Design. Stirp. Göting. (1770) 73; Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc. I (1925) 517; Valent. Merxm. et A. Schmidt, Fl. Eur. II (1968) 281; V. tricolor var. arvensis (Murr.) DC., Prodr. I (1824) 303; Boiss., Fl. Or. I (1867) 465 — Полска теменуга
Fam: Violaceae Batsch
Genus: Viola L.
Species: Viola arvensis Murr.
English Name: Field pansy
An annual plant. The root is 3 - 6 (10) cm long. Stem erect or raised, 5 - 40 cm high, often branched from the base, shortly bristly at the base, rarely completely bristly or glabrous, Leaves obtusely serrated, along the edge and veins below with scattered bristles, rarely glabrous; lower rounded to ovoid, often shallow heart-shaped at the base, 5 - 20 mm long, 5 - 21 mm wide, with petioles almost equal to the petals; middle and upper oblong-elliptic to narrowly lance, 18 - 40 mm long, 5 - 15 mm wide, pointed, wedge-shaped at the base, most often with winged petioles, 2 (or on the upper leaves 4 - 6) times shorter than the petiole . Stipules feathrty-like divided, short bristles, especially along the edge in the veins; on the lower leaves small, on the middle and upper 8 - 30 (40) mm long, 5 - 22 mm wide, with 1 - 3 inner and 3 - 6 outer linear lance to narrowly lance shares, 2 - 4 (6) times more long from the undivided part; middle part 10 - 30 mm long, 3 - 10 mm wide, most often similar to the corresponding leaf, toothed or entire, pointed, narrowed at the base in the winged petiole. Flower petioles bare 8 - 10 cm long, with bracts at the curve, after flowering upright or deflected to the side. Flowers single in the axils of the middle and upper leaves, 1 - 3 per stem, back ovate, 13 - 16 mm high, 8 - 12 mm wide, odorless. Sepals oblong-lance, with appendages 8 - 12 mm long, 2 - 3 mm wide, on the edge with short ciliate hairs; appendages square or rectangular, 2 - 3 mm long. Petals pale yellow to almost whitish, rarely the upper violet, and the lateral ones with a violet hue on the periphery, folded into the calyx, back ovoid or oblong-ovate; the upper ones directed backwards, overlapping, 7 - 8 mm long, 4.0 - 4.5 mm wide; lateral 7 - 8 mm long, 3 - 4 mm wide, curved sideways and to the upper ones (they cover them a little), at the base with cilia and sometimes with 1 - 3 violet veins; lower usually grooved folded in the middle, with the spur 10 - 14 mm long, 5 - 8 mm wide, cut off at the top or shallowly incised, yellow-orange at the base with 5 violet veins, narrowed into 2 - 3 mm long, grooved, fibrous claw inside and 2 - 4 mm long, whitish, pale yellow or bluish, slightly curved upwards, slightly longer than the calyx spur. The ovary naked; the knee-shaped style curved from the base, widened upwards, conical backwards and passing into a whole spherical stigma with a very short lower lip. Box ovoid or broadly elliptical, 5 - 8 long, 4 - 6 mm wide, pale brown, naked. Seeds brown, oblong-ovate, 1.75 m long and 1 mm wide. The appendix is short.
1 Upper two petals violet, lateral pale yellow, with a violet hue around the periphery. Corolla equal to or slightly shorter than the calyx - var. bicolor Roem. et Schult., Syst. Veg. V (1819) 382; V. bicolor Baumg., Enum Stirp. Trans. I (1816) 185; V. banatica Kit., Ap. Roem. et Schult., 1. c. Eastern Rhodopes, Thracian lowland2* The middle share of stipules different in shape from the leaves, usually entire. Flower petioles after flowering deflected to the side - var. segetalis (Jord.) Rouy et Fouc., op. c. 45; V. segetalis Jord., Op. c. 12, tab. 1, fig. V. Sofia region, Vitosha region (Lyulin).
1* Petals pale yellow, rarely upper and lateral with a purple tinge on the periphery. Corolla equal to or slightly longer than the calyx ................................................................................. 2
2 The middle part of the stipules is leaf-like, coarsely toothed. Flower petioles after flowering erect - var. arvensis; V. arvensis var. agrestis (Jord.) Rouy et Fouc., Fl. Fr. III (1896) 46; V. arvensis var. typica Posp., Fl. Österr. Küstenl. 1 (1897) 564; V. agrestis Jord., Obs. II (1846) 15. Distributed.
Note. For the Thracian lowland (Plovdiv region) V. argensis var. latilaciniata Becker (Stranski, 1922?).
From: „Флора на Н Р България”, том VII, Изд. на Б А Н, София, (1979)
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Viola arvensis is a species of violet known by the common name field pansy. It is native to Europe, western Asia, and North Africa, and it is known on other continents as an introduced species and a weed of disturbed and cultivated areas.
Viola arvensis was shown to contain cyclotides, a class of peptides found in plants. The peptide cycloviolacin O2 in particular has shown to possess cytotoxic activity against human cancer cells and is therefore looked at as a potential drug lead.
It is an herbaceous annual plant with serrated leaves, and usually flowers with white all over, except the bottom petal (Although there are actually flowers with a tinge of purple at the top) and dehiscent capsules. It reproduces by seed. It grows 20 centimeters tall.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Flowering Time: Blooms: IV - IX (X), fruitful: V - X.
References: „Флора на Н Р България”, том VII, Изд. на Б А Н, София, (1979), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Distribution in Bulgaria: Growing in desolate places, bushes, in fields, rarely in meadows. Widespread, up to 1500 m altitude. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.
Distribution: Europe. As a weed transferred to Central Asia, North America and others.
Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by the Biodiversity Law. - Biological Diversity Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/zbran_22.08.15.pdf
Medical plant: no, it is not - Medicinal Plants Act - http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/biodiversity/ZLR_en.pdf
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