Viola hirta L.

2069 (5). V. hirta L., Sp. Pl. ed. 1 (1753) 934; Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc. I (1925) 503; Valent. Berxm. et A. Schmidt, Fl. Eur. II (1968) 273 — Влакнеста теменуга

Fam:   Violaceae Batsch
Genus:   Viola L.
Species: Viola hirta L.
English Name: Sweet violet, English violet, Garedn violet, Florist’s violet


Perennial stemless, 3 - 10 (15) cm tall plant. Rhizome thick, branched, with rosettes of 2 - 6 leaves and 1 - 8 flowers, without shoots. Leaves with petioles, gray-green, oblong-ovate or triangular-ovate, 1 1/4 - 1 3/4 times longer than broad, with (3) 5 - 7 lateral veins, at the base, especially during the summer, deeply heart-shaped, to the apex acutely narrowed, finely obtusely serrated at the edge, widest in the lower third, on both sides and on the petioles softly fibrous; spring 1 - 4 cm long, 0.7 - 2.5 cm wide, with 6 - 15 cm long petioles; summer with sparser hairs, 3 - 8 cm long, 2 - 5 cm wide, with 6 - 15 cm long petioles; petioles covered with straight or directed back hairs. Stipules oblong-lance to linear-lance, 5 - 20 mm long, 1 - 3 mm wide, stliform sharpened, along the edge with lashes shorter than half their width or almost entire; bare or along the edge (except the cilia) sparsely and externally to the top fibrous. Flower petioles 3 - 10 cm long, naked or with sparse hairs, with bracts below the middle. Flowers single in the axils of the leaves, trapezoidal or square, 2.0 - 2.5 cm high, 2.2 - 2.5 cm wide, odorless. Sepals oblong-ovate, with appendages 5 - 7 mm long, 3.0 - 3.6 mm wide, obtuse, sparse hairs on the edge; appendages rounded, 1 - 2 mm long. Petals light pigeon blue, rarely blue-violet, pink or white, oblong-ovate, narrowed at the base, truncated or rounded at the apex, rarely incised; upper 12 - 14 mm long, 5 - 6 mm wide, directed backwards and sideways; lateral 11 - 12 mm long, 5 - 6 mm wide, directed to the bottom and curved to the side, at the base with cilia; lower petal almost flat, together with the spur 16 - 18 mm long, 6.5 - 7.5 mm wide, narrowed at the base into 3 - 4 mm long, grooved, ciliated nail inside, passing into 3 - 4 mm long, obtuse, light purple to whitish, often hooked at the top, spur curved upwards, 2-3 times longer than the calyx appendages. The ovary is fibrous; the style is flattened on the side; the stigma is whole, resembling a pointed, straight or slightly curved beak. The box is spherical, 5 - 8 mm in diameter, short fibrous, brown. Seeds grayish-white, ovoid, 3 mm long and 2 mm wide, with a well-developed appendage.

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V. hirta x odorata; V. permixta Jord., Obs. Fragm. VIII (1849) 6; V. hybrid Schur, Enum. PI. Transs. (1866) 79.

Perennial tufted, stemless plant with 3 - 10 (15) cm long, leafy raised, most often rooting shoots. Leaves rounded heart-shaped, slightly longer than broad, fibrous; the first leaves in the shape of V. odorata L .; summer elongated as in V. hirta L. Odorless flowers, shorter than the leaves. Znepol region (Belidiehan), 3 western Sredna gora, Thracian lowland.

From:    „Флора на Н Р България”, том VII, Изд. на Б А Н, София, (1979)

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Viola hirta is a species of the plant genus Viola. It is also called the hairy violet.[1] As with the sweet violet, no fossil seeds of this species have been found. It is confined to the cold temperate zone, in Europe, north and west Asia, extending as far as northwest India. It is absent in Wales from Brecon and Radnor, Pembroke, Cardigan, Merioneth, and from Mid Lancs, and the Isle of Man, but elsewhere it is universal. In Scotland it does not occur in Roxburgh, Berwick, Haddington, Edinburgh, Fife, Forfar, Kincardine. From Forfar it ranges to the south of England, and is found at a height of 1000 ft. in Yorks. It occurs also in Ireland.


The hairy violet is found on dry banks, and in woods, preferring drier conditions. It may be found in damper areas in woods in low-lying situations. This species has a less wide range than sweet violet (Viola odorata). Note it is considered by some sources to be the same species as Viola odorata.


The habit is prostrate like that of the sweet violet, which also has no erect stem, the leaves arising from the rootstock directly. The leaves are likewise heart-shaped, but in this case the stoles or trailing stems with buds are absent or very short, and the bracts are below the middle of the flower-stalk. Moreover, the whole plant is hairy, or roughly hairy, giving it a greyer, less green, appearance when dry.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Viola hirta L. is a synonym of Viola odorata L.

This name is a synonym of Viola odorata L..
From: › tpl1.1 › search › q=Viola hirta

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Flowering Time: Blooms: III - IV, fruitful: V - VIII.

References: „Флора на Н Р България”, том VII, Изд. на Б А Н, София, (1979), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, › tpl1.1 › search › q=Viola hirta

Distribution in Bulgaria: Growing in desolate places, in meadows, pastures and sparse bushes, mainly in the foothill and  mountain belt. Danube plain, Fore-Balkan, Western, Central and Eastern Stara Planina, Sofia region, Znepol region, Vitosha region, Pirin, Rila, Sredna gora, Western and Middle Rhodopes, from 300 to 1300 m above sea level. Indicated for: Black Sea coast (Varna - Dav., 1905), Northeastern Bulgaria (Razgrad - Vel., 1891, Targovishte - Urum, 1901, Silistra - Kov., 1905), Thracian lowland (St. Zagora - Urum., 1906; Haskovo - Urum., 1908; Popovitsa - Vel., 1922) and Tundzha hilly plain (Aytos — Urum., 1908). (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.

Distribution: Europe and Asia (from the Caucasus to Turkestan, Altai and Angara).

Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by the Biodiversity Law. - Biological Diversity Act -

Medical plant: yes, it is - Medicinal Plants Act -


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