Viola tricolor L.

2092 (29). V. tricolor L., Sp. Pl. ed. I (1753) 935; Valent. Merxm. et A. Schmidt, Fl. Eur. II (1968) 280 — Трицветна теменуга

Fam:   Violaceae Batsch
Genus:   Viola L.
Species: Viola tricolor L.
English Name: Johnny Jump up, Heartsease, Heart's ease, etc.


An annual or biennial plant. The root is 3 - 10 cm long. Stem 10 - 40 cm high, erect or raised, ridged, often branched from the base, usually at the edges with short, diluted, turned back bristly hairs. Leaves obtuse toothed, shortly bristly, especially along the edge and veins below; lower broadly ovate to ovate-lance, 9 - 35 mm long, 7 - 25 mm wide, rounded at the apex and at the base, rounded, rarely cut off, shallow heart-shaped or sudden narrowed in a petiole, 1 - 2 (3) times longer than the leaf blade; medium elliptical, ovate-lance to lance, 19 - 40 mm long, 8 - 25 mm wide, obtuse or obtuse pointed, wedge-shaped narrowed at the base in a petioles almost equal to the leaf blade; upper oblong-lance, pointed, 19 - 30 mm long, 3 - 8 mm wide, to the base gradually narrowed in a petiole, 4 - 8 times shorter than the leaf blade. Stipules more densely bristly, ovate-lance, 10 - 25 mm long, 4 - 15 mm wide, pinnately divided; stipules of the middle leaves with 2 - 3 inner and 3 - 5 outer linear or linear-lance lateral shares, 1 - 2.5 (3) times the width of the uncut part; middle part larger, 2 - 3 times longer and 2 - 4 times wider than the lateral ones, lance-elliptic or lance-spatulate, entire or toothed, narrowed at the base; stipules on the lower leaves 2 - 3 times shorter, on the middle up to 2 times, on the upper up to 3 times longer than the leaf petioles. Flower petioles 3 - 12 cm long, short bristly to the middle, rarely glabrous or completely bristly, with bracts below the curve. Flowers single in the axils of the middle and upper leaves, 1 - 3 (6) per stem, back trapezoidal, 15 - 27 mm high, 13 - 22 mm wide, odorless. Sepals oblong-lance to linear-lance, with appendages 7 - 12 mm long, 2 - 3 mm wide, with ciliated, rarely bare edge; appendages rectangular or rounded, 2 - 3 mm long. Upper petals dark purple, broadly back ovoid, 10 - 15 mm long, 8 - 12 mm wide, spreading upwards and sideways; lateral violet, lighter, asymmetrically back ovoid, curved sideways and to the upper (slightly overlapping), 10 - 14 mm long, 6 - 9 mm wide, with 3 darker veins and cilia at the base; lower almost triangular, incised at the top, with the spur 15 - 20 mm long, 9 - 15 mm wide, even paler violet, rarely yellow or white, with 5 - 7 darker veins, at the base orange, narrowed in 2 - 3 mm long grooved claw and 3 - 5 mm long, straight, blunt, blue or purple, 1.5 - 2 times longer than the spur appendages. The ovary naked; the style short, krank curved from the base, extended upwards; the stigma entire, rounded to the back conical, with a protruding lower lip and a tuft of hairs on the side below it. Flower petioles erect, Box light brown, ovoid, 7 - 9 mm long, 5 - 6 mm wide, glabrous. Seeds ovoid, pointed, yellow-brown, 1.5 - 2.0 mm long, 1 mm wide; appendage short.


subsp. tricolor. An annual plant. Stem 15 - 25 (40) cm high, most often erect. Middle leaves ovate-lance to lance. The flowers are usually blue-violet. The spur is 1.5 times longer than the calyx appendages. Widespread.
subsp. macedonca (Boiss. et Heldr.) A. Schmidt, Feddes Repert. LXXIV (1967) 30; Valent. Merxm. et A. Schmidt, Fl. Eur. II (1968) 280; V. tricolor var. macedonica (Boiss. et Heldr.) Becker in Stoj. Stef., Fl. Bulg. ed. 1, II (1925) 775; V. macedonica Boiss. et Heldr., Diagn. Pl. Or. Nov. ser. 2, I (1853) 56; Vel., Fl. Bulg. (1891) 43; V. saxatilis subsp. macedonica (Boiss. et Heldr.) Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc. I (1925) 516; V. dacica var. macedonica (Boiss. et Heldr.) Stoj. et Stef., op. c., ed. 2 (1933) 723; V. alpestris subsp. zermatensis Wittrock, Viol. Eur. (1910) 98. Perennial, rarely annual plant. The stem is 20-30 cm high. Middle leaves lance to oblong-lance, pointed, wedge-shaped narrowed at the base. The middle share of stipules large, leaf-shaped. Flowers larger, usually blue-violet, rarely lower (and lateral) petals yellow. The spur is twice as long as the calyx appendages. Western border mountains. Pirin, Western and Middle Rhodopes. It is mentioned for the Western Stara Planina (Urum., 1905), Sofia region (Urum, 1917), Vitosha region (Urum., 1930), Slavyanka (Stoyan., 1931), Pirin (Urum., 1919). Rila (Toshev, 1903; Rech. Fil., 1933), Sredna Gora (Toshev, 1903; Urum., 1913; Yord., 1924).

From:   „Флора на Н Р България”, том VII, Изд. на Б А Н, София, (1979)

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Wild pansy (Viola tricolor), also known as Johnny Jump up (though this name is also applied to similar species such as the yellow pansy), heartsease, heart's ease, heart's delight, tickle-my-fancy, Jack-jump-up-and-kiss-me, come-and-cuddle-me, three faces in a hood, love-in-idleness, or pink of my john, is a common European wild flower, growing as an annual or short-lived perennial.
It has been introduced into North America, where it has spread. It is the progenitor of the cultivated pansy, and is therefore sometimes called wild pansy; before the cultivated pansies were developed, "pansy" was an alternative name for the wild form. It can produce up to 50 seeds at a time. The flowers can be purple, blue, yellow or white.


Viola tricolor is a small plant of creeping and ramping[a] habit, reaching at most 15 cm (6 ins) in height, with flowers about 1.5 centimetres (0.59 in) in diameter. It grows in short grassland on farms and wasteland, chiefly on acid or neutral soils. It is usually found in partial shade. Its root is of the rhizome type with fine rootlets. The stem (acoli stem: which remains flush with the soil and from which leave the leaves and the flowering stalk) is hairless, sometimes downy and is branched. The plant has no leaf rosette at the base, unlike some other violets, such as Viola hirta. Leaves are, on the contrary, alternate. They are stalked at limbus oval, oblong or lanceolate and more or less serrated margins. The stipules are often quite developed, at least those of the upper leaves. These stipules are palm-lined or palmatised.
The flowers are solitary and lateral, hoisted on long peduncles. They appear on aerial stems with more or less long internodes. The sepals are never larger than the corolla. It is 10 to 25 mm long. This corolla can be purple, blue, yellow or white. It can most often be two-tone, yellow and purple. The tricolor shape, yellow, white and purple, is the most sought after.
It flowers from April to September (in the Northern Hemisphere). The plants are hermaphrodite and self-fertile, pollinated by bees.[1


It is common almost everywhere on the Eurasian continent, near the sea or inland, at altitudes ranging from 0 to 2,700 m. It grows in open grasslands, wastelands, mainly on acidic or neutral soils. It is also found on the banks and in the alluviums.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Viola tricolor L. is an accepted name

This name is the accepted name of a species in the genus Viola (family Violaceae).

From: › tpl1.1 › record › kew-2461201/

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Flowering Time: Blooms: V - IX, fruitful: VI - X.

References: „Флора на Н Р България”, том VII, Изд. на Б А Н, София, (1979), Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, › tpl1.1 › record › kew-2461201/

Distribution in Bulgaria: Growing in grassy places, in meadows, pastures, bushes, in arable land, etc., in the lowlands, foothills and mountains. Widespread, from 200 to 1800 m above sea level. (Conspectus of the Bulgarian Vascular Flora) = conspectus&gs_l= Zlc.

Distribution:  It is common. Eurasia (in the temperate zone). Secondly, as a chaff, almost cosmopolitan.

Conservation status and threats: not protected species in Bulgaria by the Biodiversity Law. - Biological Diversity Act -

Medical plant: yes, it is - Medicinal Plants Act -

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

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V. tricolor x dacica; V. riloensis Becker, Bull. Univ. Jard. Bot. Belgrade (1928) 35

V. tricolor x dacica; V. riloensis Becker, Bull. Univ. Yard. Bot. Belgrade (1928) 35 Stem erect, 10 - 25 (30) cm high. Leaves and stipules as of V. dacica. Stipules deeper short pinnate or almost palmately dissected; the average share is significantly larger than the lateral ones. Flowers blue-violet or patterned (lower petal white), odorless, in shape and size, as in V. tricolor. Rila (Скакавица).

From:   „Флора на Н Р България”, том VII, Изд. на Б А Н, София, (1979)

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V. altaica x lutea x tricolor; V. X wittrockiana Gams, in Hegi, Fl. Mitt. Eur., V, 1 (1925) 616; V. hortensis auct., Pop V. tricolor var. hortensis Host; V. tricolor var. hortensis DC., Prodr. I (1824) 303; Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balc. I (1925) 505; V. hortensis grandiflora Wittrock - Garden violet

An annual plant. Stem 15 - 25 (40) cm high. Leaves 3.0 - 6.5 cm long, 1.0 - 3.5 cm wide, large toothed, broadly ovate to ovate-lance, obtuse or pointed, rounded at the base, rarely narrowed, with a petiole, flat or more short of the leaf blade. Stipules pinnately cut; lateral shares lance to linear lance, middle back lance elliptic. Flowers with petioles 8 - 12 cm long, almost round, (3) 4 - 6 (8) cm in diameter, yellow, purple, blue, white, dark red or patterned, odorless. Sepals 1.5 - 2.0 cm, appendages 4 - 6 mm long. Petals almost rounded; the lower with the spur 25 - 35 mm long. The spur is 6 - 8 (10) mm long, 1.5 - 2 times longer than the calyx appendages. The ovary naked. The box is ovoid to rounded, 10 - 13 mm long, 6 - 8 mm wide. Seeds brown, oblong-ovate, 2.0 - 2.5 mm long, 0.9 - 1.3 mm wide, with a small appendage.

Blooms: II - VI and IX - XI, fruitful: IV - VII and X - XI. (Table LXXXVI: Figs. 2, 2a, 26, 2c; p. 387.)

It is grown throughout the whole Bulgaria as an ornamental plant.

The origin of the garden violet is not clear. It is a complex hybrid, most likely obtained with the participation of V. altaica Ker.-Gawl, V. lutea Huds. and V. tricolor L.

From:   „Флора на Н Р България”, том VII, Изд. на Б А Н, София, (1979)


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